AI - AI HOC QUOC GIA TRNG AI HOC BACH KHOA THANH PHO KHOA...

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ÑAÏI HOÏC QUOÁC GIA TRÖÔØNG ÑAÏI HOÏC BAÙCH KHOA THAØNH PHOÁ KHOA ÑIEÄN VAØ ÑIEÄN TÖÛ BOÄ MOÂN ÑIEÀU KHIEÅN TÖÏ ÑOÄNG BAØI GIAÛNG MOÂN HOÏC : Trí Tueä Nhaân Taïo Vaø Heä Chuyeân Gia Thaønh phoá Hoà Chí Minh Ngaøy 7 Thaùng 01 Naêm 2006 Bieân soïan : Tieán só Nguyeãn Thieän Thaønh
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Baøi giaûng moân Trí tueä nhaân taïo vaø heä chuyeân gia http://www.khvt.com Trang 2 Noäi dung baøi giaûng: CHÖÔNG 1 : TOÅNG QUAN VEÀ TRÍ TUEÄ NHAÂN TAÏO . .......................................................... 5 1.1) Trí tueä nhaân taïo laø gì ? . ...................................................................................................................................... 5 1.2) Lòch söû phaùt trieån trí tueä nhaân taïo : . ................................................................................................................ 5 1.3) Caùc thaønh phaàn cô baûn cuûa trí tueä nhaân taïo : . ................................................................................................ 6 CHÖÔNG 2 : CAÙC PHÖÔNG PHAÙP GIAÛI QUYEÁT VAÁN ÑEÀ CÔ BAÛN . ................................. 9 2.1) Khoâng Gian Baøi Toùan :. ............................................................................................................................................. 9 Ví duï 1: Khoâng gian baøi toùan bình ñöïng nöôùc. .............................................................................................................. 9 Ví duï 2 : Khoâng gian baøi toùan troø chôi 8 soá. ............................................................................................................... 11 Ví duï 3 : Khoâng gian baøi toùan ba tu só vaø ba keû aên thòt ngöôøi. .................................................................................... 12 Ví duï 4 : Baøi toùan rao soá hoïc (Cryarithmetic). ............................................................................................................. 14 Ví duï 5 : Baøi toùan haønh trình ngöôøi baùn haøng. ............................................................................................................ 14 2.2) Chieán Löôïc Tìm Kieám :. .......................................................................................................................................... 14 1) Tìm kieám suy dieãn tieán : ................................................................................................................................... 14 2) Chieán löôïc tìm kieám suy dieãn luøi : ................................................................................................................... 15 2.3) Giaûi Thuaät Tìm Kieám : . ........................................................................................................................................... 16 1) Giaûi thuaät tìm kieám theo chieàu roäng ((Breadth_First_Search):. .............................................................................. 17 2) Giaûi thuaät tìm kieám theo chieàu saâu (Depth First Search) :. ..................................................................................... 18 3) Giaûi thuaät tìm kieám truyeàn luøi ( Back Tracking search ) :. ...................................................................................... 19 2.4) Tìm Kieám Heuristic : . .............................................................................................................................................. 20 1) Heuristic laø gì ?. ................................................................................................................................................... 20 2) Giaûi thuaät tìm kieám Best_First_Search :........................................................................................................ 21 3) Haøm ñaùnh giaù heuristic :................................................................................................................................... 23 2.5) Baøi Toùan Raøng Buoäc :. ............................................................................................................................................. 26 CHÖÔNG 3 : HEÄ CHUYEÂN GIA. ............................................................................................. 28 3.1) Heä chuyeân gia laø gì ? . ............................................................................................................................................... 28 3.2) Caáu truùc heä chuyeân gia :. ......................................................................................................................................... 29 3.3) Thieát Keá Heä Chuyeân Gia : . ..................................................................................................................................... 30 1) Heä chuyeân gia suy dieãn tieán : ........................................................................................................................... 31 2) Thieát keá heä chuyeân gia suy dieãn luøi : .............................................................................................................. 36
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Bieân soaïn: Tieán só Nguyeãn Thieän Thaønh Hoïc kì 2 naêm hoïc 2005-2006 Trang 3 CHÖÔNG 4 : CAÙC PHÖÔNG PHAÙP BIEÅU DIEÃN TRI THÖÙC. ................................................ 41 4.1) Bieåu Dieãn Tri Thöùc Laø Gì ? . ................................................................................................................................... 41 4.2) Bieåu Dieãn Tri Thöùc Nhôø Logic Vò Töø : . ................................................................................................................. 42 1) Logic ñeà xuaát :.................................................................................................................................................... 42 2) Logic vò tö ø :. ........................................................................................................................................................ 44 3) Giaûi baøi toùan baèng phöông phaùp hôïp giaûi : .................................................................................................... 47 4.3) Bieåu Dieãn Tri Thöùc Nhôø Maïng Ngöõ Nghóa : . ........................................................................................................ 49 4.4) Bieåu Dieãn Tri Thöùc Nhôø Frame : . .......................................................................................................................... 51 4.5) Giôùi Thieäu Veà Ngoân Ngöõ Laäp Prolog : . ................................................................................................................. 56 1) Caáu truùc chöông trình :..................................................................................................................................... 56 2) Caùc loïai toùan töû : . ................................................................................................................................................ 58 3) Xöû lyù danh saùch trong ngoân ngöõ laäp trình Prolog : ....................................................................................... 59 5.1) ÖÙng Duïng trí Tueä Nhaân Taïo Phaân Tích Baûo Veä Heä Thoáng Naêng Löôïng ñieän : . ............................................. 73 5.2) Baøi Toùan Robot Tìm Vaøng : . ................................................................................................................................... 78 5.3) Baøi Toùan Laäp Phöông Aùn Cho Caùnh Tay Robot Xeáp Khoái :. ............................................................................. 81 CHÖÔNG 6 : XÖÛ LYÙ TRI THÖÙC KHOÂNG CHAÉC CHAÉN. ..................................................... 86 6.1) Lyù Giaûi Döôùi Ñieàu Kieän Khoâng Chaéc Chaén :. ...................................................................................................... 86 6.2) Xöû Lyù Tri Thöùc Khoâng Chaéc Chaén Duøng Lyù Thuyeát Xaùc Suaát : . ..................................................................... 87 1) Lyù thuyeát xaùc suaát :........................................................................................................................................... 87 2) Lyù giaûi chính xaùc döôùi ñieàu kieän khoâng chaéc chaén duøng xaùc suaát : ............................................................ 88 3)
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This note was uploaded on 01/18/2012 for the course INFORMATIK 2011 taught by Professor Phanthuongcang during the Winter '11 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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AI - AI HOC QUOC GIA TRNG AI HOC BACH KHOA THANH PHO KHOA...

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