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Energy_01_Energy_in_Deforming_Materials

# Energy_01_Energy_in_Deforming_Materials - Section 5.1 5.1...

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Section 5.1 Solid Mechanics Part I Kelly 169 5.1 Energy in Deforming Materials There are many different types of energy: mechanical, chemical, nuclear, electrical, magnetic, etc. Energies can be grouped into kinetic energies (which are due to movement) and potential energies (which are stored energies - energy that a piece of matter has because of its position or because of the arrangement of its parts). A rubber ball held at some height above the ground has (gravitational) potential energy. When dropped, this energy is progressively converted into kinetic energy as the ball’s speed increases until it reaches the ground where all its energy is kinetic. When the ball hits the ground it begins to deform elastically and, in so doing, the kinetic energy is progressively converted into elastic strain energy , which is stored inside the ball. This elastic energy is due to the re-arrangement of molecules in the ball – one can imagine this to be very like numerous springs being compressed inside the ball. The ball reaches maximum deformation when the kinetic energy has been completely converted into strain energy. The strain energy is then converted back into kinetic energy, “pushing” the ball back up for the rebound. Elastic strain energy is a potential energy – elastically deforming a material is in many ways similar to raising a weight off the ground; in both cases the potential energy is increased. Similarly, work is done in stretching a rubber band. This work is converted into elastic strain energy within the rubber. If the applied stretching force is then slowly reduced, the rubber band will use this energy to “pull” back. If the rubber band is stretched and then released suddenly, the band will retract quickly; the strain energy in this case is converted into kinetic energy – and sound energy (the “snap”). When a small weight is placed on a large metal slab, the slab will undergo minute strains, too small to be noticed visually. Nevertheless, the metal behaves like the rubber ball and when the weight is removed the slab uses the internally stored strain energy to return to its initial state. On the other hand, a metal bar which is bent considerably, and then laid upon the ground, will not nearly recover its original un-bent shape. It has undergone permanent deformation. Most of the energy supplied has been lost; it has been converted into heat energy, which results in a very slight temperature rise in the bar. Permanent deformations of this type are accounted for by plasticity theory , which is treated in Part II. In any real material undergoing deformation, at least some of the supplied energy will be converted into heat. However, with the ideal elastic material under study in this chapter, it is assumed that all the energy supplied is converted into strain energy. When the loads are removed, the material returns to its precise initial shape and there is no energy loss; for example, a purely elastic ball dropped onto a purely elastic surface would bounce back up to the precise height from which it was released.

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Energy_01_Energy_in_Deforming_Materials - Section 5.1 5.1...

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