17_Xrays

17_Xrays - INDIANA UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, P309...

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INDIANA UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, P309 LABORATORY Laboratory #17: X-Rays, Atomic Energy Levels Goal: Observe X-rays that are emitted when a metal is bombarded with energetic electrons; determine the energy difference between atomic levels. Equipment: X-ray spectrometer (Tel-x-ometer) with accessories. (A) Physics: X-rays are produced in a vacuum tube. Electrons (current I o ) are emitted from a hot cathode, and accelerated by a potential difference U o to an energy eU o . At the end of their travel, the electrons strike a metal surface (anode). The anode in our X-ray apparatus is made from copper. X-rays are emitted for either one of two reasons: Bremsstrahlung . The electrons are decelerated in the anode. A decelerating charge emits electromagnetic radiation. The resulting spectrum is continuous. The smallest wave length, λ m , or the largest frequency ν m =c/ λ m ( c = speed of light) corresponds to the largest x-ray energy, E m , which corresponds to the full energy of the electron. Using E m =h ν m , leads to the so-called Duane-Hunt rule: 0 U e c h m = λ . ( 1 ) Characteristic x-rays
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course P 309 taught by Professor Urheim during the Spring '11 term at Indiana.

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17_Xrays - INDIANA UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, P309...

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