P110_2008_Week_9

P110_2008_Week_9 - Pascal and Archimedes P=Po+ gh...

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Pascal and Archimedes P=P o + ρ gh F buoy =W fluid_displ
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Typical content of the atmosphere (ppm by volume near the surface) N 2 780,900 O 2 209,400 H 2 O variable (<20,000) Argon 9,300 CO 2 380* Neon 18 Helium 5.2 Methane 1.7* Krypton 1 Hydrogen 0.5 NAAQS pollutants (ppm) CO 9 (Prim. standard) NO 2 0.05 (NO x ??) O 3 0.075 SO x 0.03 P 10 150 μ g/m 3 P 2.5 15 μ g/m 3 Lead 0.15 μ g/m 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Atmosphere_gas_proportions.svg * Occur naturally, but variable due to human activity
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Atmospheric structure http://www.mardiros.net/atmosphere/atmosphere_structure.html Average dT/dh = -6 K/km The region of weather! T relatively constant, increasing to About 200K at the stratopause T up to 1500 K due to intense solar radiation Chemical composition changes to be richer in lighter gases, gravitational stratification almost no H 2 O or ozone
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Troposphere and Ozone http://www.mardiros.net/atmosphere/atmosphere_structure.html 10 ppm ozone at ~ 50 km compared to 40 ppb ozone in the troposphere! http://www.weatherquestions.com/troposphere.jpg
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Temperature Inversion http://www.weatherquestions.com/What_is_a_temperature_inversion.htm In extreme cases the temperature can actually increase with height.
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Example of an inversion (Scotland) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature_inversion
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http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html (2) As of Oct. 2008
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Health Effects: Time and concentration Sulfur dioxide as an example
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Non Road Equipment
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P110_2008_Week_9 - Pascal and Archimedes P=Po+ gh...

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