P120_2008_week13

P120_2008_week13 - Wind Energy The text gives(on page 407 in slightly different units the formula P = 0.3*D2 V3(W.s3/m5 D-turbine diameter V wind

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Wind Energy http://cenlamar.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/plan_3tiermap.jpg The text gives (on page 407 in slightly different units) the formula: P = 0.3*D 2 V 3 (W.s 3 /m 5 ) D-turbine diameter V- wind velocity So a 9m/s wind provides 27 times the power that a 3m/s wind provides!!
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Types of Windmills/turbines According to wikipedia, as of 2006 installed world-wide capacity is 74 GW (same capacity as only 3.5 dams the size of the three-Gorges project in China). Altogether, there are 150,000 windmills operating in the US alone (mainly for water extraction/distribution) 7% efficiency, but work at low wind speeds Up to 56 % efficiency with 3 blades, do very little at low wind speeds
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GE 2.5MW generator http://www.gepower.com/prod_serv/products/wind_turbines/en/downloads/ge_25mw_brochure.pdf Blade diameter: 100m Wind range: 3.5m/s to 25m/s Rated wind speed: 11.5 m/s
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Types of Windmills (cont.)
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Altamont Pass (CA) http://www.ilr.tu-berlin.de/WKA/windfarm/altcal.html 6000 turbines, built 1980’s
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San Gorgonio Pass (CA) http://www.ilr.tu-berlin.de/WKA/windfarm/sgpcal.html 3500 turbines, built 1980’s
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Costs of generating electricity ( http://www.iea.org/Textbase/npsum/ElecCostSUM.pdf $US quoted ) Coal (Avg of 27 plants) $1K-$1.5K/kWe capital $45-60/MW.h ( Inv. 50%, O&M 15%, Fuel 35%) Gas (23) $0.6-0.8K/kWe $40-63/MWh ( Inv. 20%, O&M 7%, Fuel 73%) Nuclear (13) $1-$2K/kWe (DVB: probably more, esp. in USA) $30-50/MWh (Inv. 70%, O&M 13%, Fuel 10%) Wind (19) $1-2K/kWe $45-140/MWh (O&M 12-40%) Load factor variability is a major factor in setting the costs of running a wind plant (similar problems would hold true for solar as well). Solar (6) approaches $300/MWh Cogeneration (24) estimated $30-70/MWh Note the three separate cost categories and the different mix for these. Compare all of these to gasoline ($2/gal => $55/MW.h)
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Load (or capacity) factors http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html Nuclear and Coal have very large “load factors” (these plants tend to run most of the time, and provide “base load” capacity. Other types of plants, like Natural gas, can be “fired up” more quickly and tend to be used to accommodate peak loads (sometimes called “peaking plants”). Wind has a typical capacity factor of only about 20% (solar is probably a little more, but still much less than 50%).
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http://www.heraldtimesonline.com/stories/2008/11/22/statenews.qp-0886723.sto?1227497481
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course P 110 taught by Professor Baxter during the Fall '08 term at Indiana.

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P120_2008_week13 - Wind Energy The text gives(on page 407 in slightly different units the formula P = 0.3*D2 V3(W.s3/m5 D-turbine diameter V wind

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