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P120_2008_week14

P120_2008_week14 - Costs of generating...

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Costs of generating electricity ( http://www.iea.org/Textbase/npsum/ElecCostSUM.pdf $US quoted ) Coal (Avg of 27 plants) $1K-$1.5K/kWe capital $45-60/MW.h ( Inv. 50%, O&M 15%, Fuel 35%) Gas (23) $0.6-0.8K/kWe $40-63/MWh ( Inv. 20%, O&M 7%, Fuel 73%) Nuclear (13) $1-$2K/kWe (DVB: probably more, esp. in USA) $30-50/MWh (Inv. 70%, O&M 13%, Fuel 10%) Wind (19) $1-2K/kWe $45-140/MWh (O&M 12-40%) Load factor variability is a major factor in setting the costs of running a wind plant (similar problems would hold true for solar as well). Solar (6) approaches $300/MWh Cogeneration (24) estimated $30-70/MWh Note the three separate cost categories and the different mix for these. Compare all of these to gasoline ($2/gal => $55/MW.h)
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Other approaches to Solar http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/tech/2008/06/10/obrien.algae.oil.cnn Vertigro algae Biofuels system. Requires about 1000 gallons of water for each gallon of bio- diesel. But this could be promising! Perfect sort of thing for term paper!
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p-n junction and solar cell action Conduction band Valence band Gap Energy Position _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ p-type n-type •When a light photon with energy greater than the gap is absorbed it creates an electron-hole pair (lifting the electron in energy up to the conduction band, and thereby providing the emf). •To be effective, you must avoid: •avoid recombination (electron falling back in to the hole). •Avoid giving the electron energy too far above the gap •Minimize resistance in the cell itself •Maximize absorption All these factors amount to minimizing the disorder in the cell material _ +
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Basics of Photo-Voltaics As with atoms, materials like semiconductors have states of particular energy available to their electrons. Absorbing a photon of sufficiently short wavelength (i.e. high enough energy) can lift an electron from the filled “valence” band of states to the empty “conduction” band of states.
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