P120_2008_week15

P120_2008_week15 - Office Hours Next week Final Exam:...

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Office Hours Next week Final Exam: Tuesday 16 Dec. 7:15 SW007 DVB office Hours next week: Monday: 13:30 to 16:30 Tuesday: 10:00 to 12:00 13:30 to 15:30
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Summary of problems with Nuclear Fission Very expensive to build power plants (at least the way it is done in the USA). Potential for weapons proliferation by diversion of 235 U or byproducts to “undesirables” Handling of the waste (both from health and proliferation points of view). Very small probability of a very bad accident (Chernobyl, although an event just like that is impossible with western designs). New reactor designs, fuel cycles (Thorium), waste processing, etc. could provide ways out of many of these but will take research and significant investments!
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Nuclear Fusion http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/fusion/fusion.html The reaction shown is the easiest to use, but D-D is also possible and is what we discussed in class, simply because it is easier to get the fuel and the math is a bit easier. 2*M D = 4.027106 amu vs. 3 He + p = (3.0160293+1.007825) amu + ~2MeV or 3 H + n = (3.0160492+1.008665) amu + ~3MeV NOTE: 3 He and p are stable 3 H has a half-life of 12 years, n of 15 minutes. This process produces no long-lived radioactivity directly, unlike fission.
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ITER http://www.iter.org/index.htm Proposed 500MW Fusion test Facility. First plasma expected 2016. “International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor”
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Inertial confinement http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/thyd/icf/target.html
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The Hydrogen Hype Can’t mine it, it is NOT an energy source Why not just use electricity directly? Even as a liquid, energy density is low Storage and transport are difficult issues •More dangerous (explosive) than CH 4 No existing infrastructure The Realities H 2 burns with 0 2 to make water •H 2 comes from the oceans (lots of it) Fuel cells can “burn” it efficiently
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Hydrogen Economy Need lots of research in areas such as: Production Transmission/storage Distribution/end use Hydrogen seems to be an attractive alternative to fossil fuels, but it cannot be mined. You need to treat it more like electricity than gasoline (i.e. as a carrier of energy, not as a primary source).
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http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/review04/4_science_stevens_04.pdf
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http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/review04/4_science_stevens_04.pdf
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http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/review04/4_science_stevens_04.pdf
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Physisorbtion Chemical Reaction Chemisorbtion Encapsulation Weak binding energy -> Low T required Carbon nanotubes Porous materials Zeolites Reversible Hydrides PdH, LiH, … Large energy input to release H2 Slow Dynamics Very large energy input to release H2 Not technologically feasible
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course P 110 taught by Professor Baxter during the Fall '08 term at Indiana.

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P120_2008_week15 - Office Hours Next week Final Exam:...

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