Comm 325 Final Exam Review
Chapter 6: Identity and Difference in Organizational Life
—defined as how individuals position themselves in the world through language
—for being real and honest in how we live and work with others
—complex, fluid, and sometimes contradictory ways in which
multiple social identity categories (including gender, race, class, age, ability, sexuality,
and others) combine
Iceberg Model of Diversity
—an iceberg only has 1/8 of its actual mass above the water.
Like an iceberg, people have only a limited understanding of another person’s identity
when they stop at the “surface,” or the characteristics that are readily observable.
Assumed characteristics based on observation or other perceptions are at the “water line.”
Many characteristics are not readily observable, but they are important aspects of identity
that people often use to describe themselves to others; these are “below the water line.”
One complication of the iceberg model is that some assumed aspects of identity, such as
gender, race, etc., are not always accurate.
The iceberg model provides a clear picture of
the many aspects of identity that are included in diversity.
Above the Water Line: Gender, Race, Clothing/Attire, Physical Appearance,
Age/Generation, Physical disability
On the Water Line: Marital Status, Religion – Spirituality
Below the Water Line:
Ethnic Background, Nationality, Education, Sexual Orientation,
Language, Hobbies Interests, Career/Position, Health, Geographic Origins, Family Roles,
Relationship between Identity and Ideology