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Midterm study guide (3-2)

Midterm study guide (3-2) - Midterm study guide Terms...

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Midterm study guide Terms: Transmission Model: (Lasswell and Claude Shannon) aka “Math Theory of Communication,” “Cybernetic model,” “hypodermic needle,” “Direct effects,” “Magic Bullet.” This model looks at media and picks who says what, in which channel, to whom. The idea is that whatever message is sent is exactly what is received and it will have specific affect on those who receive the message. Watching America’s Next Top Model will make people want to be skinny, have eating disorder and do anything to lose weight because it’s a glamorous lifestyle. Cultural Model: (Raymond Williams) Focuses on how cultural products reflect aspects of a specific culture. An example would be how the prevalence of Diet Books, such as the Atkins Diet, suggest that dieting is an American fad and shows that Americans are obsesses with losing weight and being “beautiful.” Culture: Power: Three definitions: Encoding/Decoding: (Stuart Hall) This is Stuart Hall’s critique of the transmission model and says that people can interpret the meaning of the message sent by the media in three ways: dominant(hegemonic), negotiated and oppositional. Dominant: The way those who sent the message want others to interpret it Negotiated: When understand what the dominant view is and can understand parts of it yet they interpret the message in a different manner. Oppositional: Going against the dominant view point and having opposite view. -Can use Bill O’Reilly and the “No Spin Zone to see how people can have a dominant, oppositional or negotiated view of him. Codes Sign= signifier/signified (Saussure) Signifier is the literal word (sound coming out of the mouth) or the image. The Signified is the actual object talking about (ex: the chair, it’s the thing being described by the signifier) -Connection between signifier and signified is arbitrary and differential, meant to show differences because that sign and others- the signifier does not exist without the thing (signified) it is referring to. Polysemy Hegemony: Was brought up by both Lull and Gramsci and it is the process of negotiation through which the dominant ideology secures dominance. An example of this is Military industrial complex: ( McChesney) Concentration: (McChesney) Refers to the degree to which a company owns all the same products of similar price. (proportions of markets controlled by small number of firms increasing right now) Horizontal integration: (McChesney) It is when there is an acquisition of additional business activities at the same level of the value chain. Also, when a firm attempts to control as much of the output in its particular field as possible.
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-With bigger share of market they have lower overhead and more bargaining power with suppliers. Also gets larger say in the prices it charges for its products (because there is little competition) -Example of this is Microsoft Oligopoly: This occurs when a few companies have the majority of the power or products in a certain industry. It is how most of U.S mass media industries have operated (do not
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