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Unformatted text preview: DNA Lac Z = -gal Lac Y = Permease Lac A = transacetlylase foreign DNA are cut by the same restriction enzyme in this case EcoRI. ends anneal, joining the foreign DNA and plasmid. phosphate bonds are sealed by DNA ligase. Primer: 5-CTAGG-3 5-GATCCATAGG-3 3-CTAGG/TATCC-5 C - 3 2 - D 5 3 - A 1 5 E 4 1 - B 6 - 4 s2 = (x - X)2 n - 1 determine effect of gene. Ex. temp. affects function of some protein effect of environment more milk (genetics) gets best food P a g e | 1 Genetics Exa m III Study Sheet 1. P R O K A R Y O TIC G E N E R E G U L A TI O N. Gene expression can be regulated at m any steps a) Relaxed D N A Prem R N A m R N A Protein (Inactive) M odified Protein (Active) Transcription (D N A Prem R N A) the m ain point of regulation in prokary. Lec 18 2. C onstitutive G enes always active (transcription continuous) and products essential to normal growing cells. Regulated G enes products needed at specific times and activity controlled in response to needs of cell or organism; it is expressed often in specific environ mental/develop mental context. 3. Bacterial gene expression regulated by controlling transcription 1) The Lac O peron regulates lactose m etabolism and was studied by Jacob &amp; M anod. It is the operon w hich is required for the transport and m etabolism of lactose in E. coli w hich consists of 3 adjacent structural genes: a pro moter, an operator and a terminator. 2) The Trp O peron 4. O peron cluster of genes coordinately regulated by one pro moter. A functioning unit of key nucleotide sequences including an operator, a co m mon pro moter and one or m ore structural genes, w hich is controlled as a unit to produce m R N A, in the process of transcription. a) O perator seg ment of D N A w here the repressor binds to. b) Pro moter region of D N A that facilitates transcription of a particular gene c) Structural gene gene that codes for any R N A or protein product other than a regulatory protein. It m akes proteins in the cell. i) Repressor D N Abinding protein that regulates the expression of one or m ore genes by decreasing the rate of transcription and binds to the operator ii) Regulatory protein refers to the process that cells and viruses use to turn information on genes into gene products (R N A or protein resulting from gene expression). 5. Lactose gal Glucose &amp; Galactose Energy O R Lactose gal Allolactose (IN D U C E R ) P a g e | 2 Genetics Exa m III Study Sheet 6. Induction turning on of gene expression Inducer environ mental agent that triggers induction by binding to the repressor Lactose Converted to allolactose induces expression of 3 proteins: transcription Polycistronic m R N A 7....
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- Fall '08