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J.Today Midterm Review

J.Today Midterm Review - Japan Today Midterm Study Guide...

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Japan Today- Midterm Study Guide Essay: Discuss and analyze the US Occupation agenda of reform in Japan and how it evolved and with what consequences. Also discuss how GHQ promoted transformation and continuities with detailed reference to GHQ initiatives GHQ/SCAP Agenda: General Headquarters/Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers- General Douglas MacAuthur demilitarize & democratize: demilitarize: demobilized all of J forces, tokyo tribunal, Article 9 of Const. democratize: decentralize power, constitution, promote free press, unions, human rights, check & balances, women’s right to vote; Zaibatsu/Keiretsu, land reform, education reform; reverse course reverse course (continuity)- began Feb 1. 1947: MacArthur banned a general strike; cold war- US shift from punitive- promoting recovery continuity vs. transformation: continuity: 1940 sys- bureaucracy (development state) Hirohito Zaibatsu--> Keiretsu conservative political elite transformation: demilitarization & article 9 constitution, checks & balances civil rights gender equality education reform sep. of church and state emperor--> symbol decentralization police free press & unions land reform education reform consequences- GHQ wanted to decentralize power, however they spread power so far out that it can cause what we see J struggling with today being stuck in “deadlock” where few laws get passed, there is frequent change in political leadership, political leaders rely on precedence, no focus of being proactive Identifications: 1. Economic Miracle: WHAT IS IT: The name given to the historical phenomenon of Japan’s record period of socio- economic growth following WWII (1950s & ’60s)
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Regarded as one of the world’s greatest success stories in the second half of the 20th cent. Spurred mainly by U.S. investment but partly by Japanese gov. eco. Interventionism in particular through their Ministry of International Trade and Industry Factors favoring recovery: o Korean war - b/c of the gift from the God’s Yoshida; brought japan out of recession; J had huge increases in production-Americans purchases war related materials o U.S. market/licensing technology- J. companies have privilege access of money and tech. o Foreign exchange regulation - the govt. has leverage on import and export and gov. has leverage on domestic production; no repatriation of profits; J. producers are facing less competition at home o 1940 sys -bureaucratic influence; administrative guidance (dev. State- industrial targeting- which led to a red tapped bureaucratic driven economy ) o dodge line - joseph dodge aided j. on hyperinflation and budget deficits: forced J. govt to adopted balanced budget, strict wage negotiation, fire unneeded employees, cant just print out endless amounts of money. he solved the prob of hyperinflation but drove the economy into recession (which was cured by the Korean war) o GATT - General Agreement of Trades and Tariffs; J. greatly benefited from this; set
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