9 - Nontariff Trade Barriers and New Protectionism Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Nontariff Trade Barriers and New Protectionism Chapter 9 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 1/30 1 Introduction We discuss the definition of import quotas and the definitions of other nontariff barriers and the new Protectionism and Understand the political economy of protectionism protectionism Know the definition of strategic trade and industrial policies industrial Introduce the Uruguay Round and outstanding trade problems outstanding ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 2/30 Key Terms • • • • • • • • • • Nontariff trade barriers New protectionism International cartel Persistent dumping Predatory dumping Sporadic dumping Export subsidy Infant industry Strategic trade policy Game theory ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 3/30 2 Nontariff Trade Barriers Import Quotas Import Voluntary Export Restraints Import License System Foreign Exchange Control Foreign Government Procurement Policy Internal Taxes Minimum Price Prohibitive Import Advanced Deposit Customs Valuation Customs Technical Barrier to Trade ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 4/30 2.1 Import Quotas & Their Effects A quota is the most important nontariff trade quota the barrier. It is a direct quantitative restriction on the amount of a commodity allowed to be imported or exported. So we have import quotas and export quotas. export Import quotas can be used to protect a domestic industry, to protect domestic agriculture, and/or for balance-of-payments reasons. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 5/30 2.2 Partial Equilibrium Analysis of An Import Quota ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 6/30 2.3 Import Quota & Import Tariff The First Difference: With an import quota, an increase in demand will result in a higher domestic price and greater domestic production than with an equivalent import tariff. When adjustment (thru any shift in DX or Sx) occurs (thru in the domestic price with an import quota, import quota with completely replaces the market mechanism. completely With an import tariff, an increase in demand will leave the domestic price and domestic production unchanged but will result in higher consumption and imports than with an equivalent import quota. with When adjustment (to any shift in DX or Sx) occurs in the quantity of imports with a tariff, an import tariff alters market mechanism (as an import tariff does). ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 7/30 2.3 Import Quota & Import Tariff The Second Difference: The The quota involves the distribution of import licenses. If the government does not auction off these licenses in a competitive market, firms that receive them will reap monopoly profits. In that case, the government must decide the basis for distributing licenses among potential importers of the commodity. Such choices may be based on arbitrary official judgments rather than on efficiency considerations, and import quotas tend to remain frozen even in the face of changes in the relative efficiency of various actual and potential importers of the commodity. As for import tariff, the government collects it for all the imports. the ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 8/30 2.3 Import Quota & Import Tariff 2.3 Import Quota & Import Tariff The Third Difference: An import quota limits imports to the specified level with certainty, while the trade effect of an import tariff may be uncertain. Furthermore, foreign exporters may absorb all or part of the tariff by increasing their efficiency of operation or by accepting lower profits. As a result, the actual reduction in imports may be less than anticipated. Exporters cannot do this with an import quota since the quantity of imports allowed into the nation is clearly specified by the quota. It is for this reason, and also because an import tariff is less "visible," that domestic producers strongly prefer import quotas to import tariffs. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 9/30 3 Voluntary Export Restraints These refer to the case where an importing country induces another nation to reduce its exports of a commodity "voluntarily," under the threat of higher all-round trade restrictions, when these exports threaten an entire domestic industry. VERs have been negotiated since the 1950s among industrial nations to curtail exports of textiles, steel, electronic products, automobiles, and other products from Japan, Korea, and other nations. These are the mature industries that faced sharp declines in employment in the industrial countries during the 1980s. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 10/30 3.1 Effects of VERs They have all the economic effects of equivalent import quotas, except that they are administered by the exporting country, and so the revenue effect or rents are captured by foreign exporters. Voluntary export restraints are less effective in limiting imports than import quotas because the exporting nations agree only reluctantly to curb their exports. Foreign exporters are also likely to fill their quota with higher-quality and higher-priced units of the product over time. Furthermore, only major supplier countries are involved, leaving the door open for other nations to replace part of the exports of the major suppliers and also from transshipments through third countries. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 11/30 3.2 Other Regulations Safety regulations Health regulations Labeling requirements Government procurement policies ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 12/30 3.3 International Cartels An international cartel is an organization of suppliers of a commodity located in different nations that agrees to restrict output and exports of the commodity with the aim of maximizing or increasing the total profits of the organization. Although domestic cartels are illegal in the US and restricted in EU, the power of international cartels cannot easily be countered because they do not fall under the jurisdiction of any nation. Conditions for its success A few international suppliers Essential commodity No close substitutes ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 13/30 3.4 Dumping Dumping is the export of a commodity at below cost or at least the sale of a commodity at a lower price abroad than domestically. Dumping is classified as persistent, predatory, and sporadic. Persistent dumping Persistent Sporadic dumping Predatory dumping ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 14/30 3.4 Dumping It is often difficult to determine the type of dumping, and domestic producers demand protection against any dumping. They discourage imports and increase their own production and profits (rents). In some cases of persistent and sporadic dumping, the benefit to consumers from low prices may actually exceed the possible production losses of domestic producers. of These restrictions usually take the form of antidumping duties to offset price differentials, or the threat to impose such duties. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 15/30 3.5 Export Subsidies Export subsidies are direct payments or the granting of tax relief and subsidized loans to the nation's exporters or potential exporters and/or low-interest loans to foreign buyers so as to stimulate the nation's exports. As such, export subsidies can be regarded as a form of dumping. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 16/30 4 Arguments for Protection Are trade restrictions needed to protect domestic Are labor against cheap foreign labor? labor Comments: This is fallacious because even if Comments: domestic wages are higher than wages abroad, domestic labor costs can still be lower if the productivity of labor is sufficiently higher domestically than abroad. Even if this were not the case, mutually beneficial trade could still be based on comparative advantage. based Can they use scientific tariff to protect domestic Can market? market? Comments: This would eliminate international Comments: price differences and trade in all commodities subject to such "scientific" tariffs. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 17/30 4.1 Questionable Arguments Protection is needed (1) to reduce domestic unemployment and (2) to cure a deficit in the nation's balance of payments Comments: Protection can reduce domestic unemployment and a balance-of-payments deficit. But they’re beggar-thy-neighbor arguments for protection because they come at the expense of other nations. As a result, other nations are likely to retaliate, and all nations lose in the end. Domestic unemployment and deficits in the nation's balance of payments should be corrected with appropriate monetary, fiscal, and trade policies rather than with trade restrictions. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 18/30 4.2 Infant­Industry for Protection A nation may have a potential comparative edge in a commodity, but because of lack of know-how and the initial small level of output, the industry will not be set up or, if already started, cannot compete successfully with more established foreign firms. Temporary trade protection is then needed to establish Temporary and protect the domestic industry during its "infancy" until it can meet foreign competition, achieve economies of scale, and reflect the nation's long-run comparative advantage. At that time, protection is to be removed. For this argument to be valid, the return in the grownFor up industry must be sufficiently high also to offset the up higher prices paid by domestic consumers of the commodity during the infancy period. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 19/30 4.2 Infant­Industry for Protection 4.2 Infant­Industry for Protection Qualifications for Protection 1. It is clear that such an argument is more justified for developing than for industrial nations. 2. It is difficult to identify which industry or potential industry qualifies for this treatment, and experience has shown that protection, once given, is difficult to remove. 3. What trade protection can do, an equivalent production subsidy to the infant industry can do better. production subsidy A domestic distortion such as this should be domestic overcome with a purely domestic policy rather than with purely a trade policy that also distorts relative prices and domestic consumption. A production subsidy is also a more direct form of aid and is easier to remove than an import tariff. One practical difficulty is that a subsidy requires revenues, rather than generating them as an NHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 20/30 import tariffAdoes. 4.3 Who Gets Protected? Trade protection benefits producers and Trade harms consumers harms Since producers are few and stand to gain a great deal from protection, they have a strong incentive to lobby the government to adopt protectionist measures. On the other hand, since the losses are diffused among many consumers, each of whom loses very little from the protection, they are not likely to effectively organize to resist protectionist measures. Thus, there is a bias in favor of protectionism. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 21/30 5 Strategic Trade Policy A nation can create a comparative advantage (thru temporary trade protection, subsidies, tax benefits, and cooperative govt-industry programs) in such fields as semiconductors, computers, telecommunications, and other industries that are deemed crucial to future growth in the nation.These high-technology industries are subject to high risks, require large-scale production to achieve economies of scale, and give rise to extensive external economies when successful. Strategic trade policy suggests that by encouraging such industries, the nation can reap the large external economies that result from them and enhance its future growth prospects. Examples: the steel industry in 1950s and in Examples: semiconductors in 1970s and 1980s in Japan, and in the development of the Concorde in 1970s and the Airbus from 1970s in Europe. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 22/30 5.1 Difficulties in Implementing Strategic Trade Policy First, it is extremely difficult to pick winners and First, devise appropriate policies to successfully nurture them. Second, since most leading nations undertake Second, strategic trade policies at the same time, their efforts are largely neutralized, so the potential benefits to each may be small. Third, when a country does achieve substantial Third, success with strategic trade policy, this comes at the expense of others and so other countries are likely to retaliate. retaliate. Faced with all these practical difficulties, even supporters of strategic trade policy acknowledge that free trade is still the best policy, after all. That is, free trade trade may be sub-optimal in theory, but it is optimal in practice. practice. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 23/30 5.2 Strategic Trade Policy & Game Theory Suppose that Boeing and Airbus are both deciding whether to produce a new aircraft. Suppose also that a single producer would earn a profit of $100 million. If both producers produce the aircraft, each loses $10 million. Airbus Airbus Produce Boeing Produce Don’t Produce Don’t Produce - 10 0 100 100 - 10 100 100 0 0 0 ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 24/30 6 The Uruguay Round The aim of the Uruguay Round was to The establish rules for checking the proliferation of the new protectionism and reverse its trend; bring services, agriculture, and foreign investments into the negotiations; negotiate international rules for the protection of intellectual property rights; and improve the dispute settlement mechanism by ensuring more timely decisions and compliance with GATT rulings. The agreement was signed by the United States and most other countries on April 15, 1994, and took effectFINANCE & ECONOMICS ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF on July 1, 1995. 25/30 6.1 Major Provisions of the Accord 1. Tariffs. 2. Quotas. 3. Antidumping. 4. Subsidies. 5. Safeguards. 6. Intellectual property. 7. Services. 8. Other industry provisions. 9. Trade-related investment measures. 10. World Trade Organization. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 26/30 6.2 Gains from the Uruguay Round ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 27/30 6.3 Outstanding Trade Problems 1. Some sectors, such as movies and TV programs, were not included in the agreement, agricultural subsidies remain high, and patent protection for pharmaceuticals remains disappointing. 2. Many of the trade problems of developing countries have either not been addressed or liberalization has been long delayed. 3. The agreement did not make any special provision to help the formerly centrally planned economies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union establish market economies and integrate them into the world trading system after the collapse of communism in the late 1980s and early 1990s. 4. It is the tendency for the world to break up into three major trading blocs: the European Union (EU), the North America Free Trade Area (NAFTA), and an Asian bloc. 5. It has not dealt with labor and environmental standards, and these may create major trade problems in the future. Trade-related competition policies (such as subsidies and regulations) as well as trade-related investment measures (TRIMs) have also been inadequately dealt with in the Uruguay Round. ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 28/30 7 Discussion Questions • What is meant by voluntary export restriction? • What are the technical, administrative, and What other nontariff barriers to trade? How do they restrict trade? restrict • What are international cartels? How do their What oerations restict trade? What the conditions for the success of the cartel? for • What are the different forms of dumping? What What conditions are required to make dumping possible? possible? • Whay do nations subsidize exports? To what Whay problems do these subsidies give rise? problems ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 29/30 THANK YOU ! ANHUI UNIVERSITY OF FINANCE & ECONOMICS 30/30 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course ECON 3564 taught by Professor Daley during the Fall '09 term at Temple.

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