The Conceptual Framework of Biology Part Two, The Conceptual Framework of Biology , includes cosmological evolution, natural levels of organization in the physical world, biological evolution, life as a chemical function (biochemistry and genetics), and the modern synthesis (Darwin and Mendel). This section of the course is devoted to explaining the process of evolution by natural selection and the genetic basis by which natural selection operates. To do so, it is necessary to show the fundamental causal mechanisms that lead to evolutionary change. Cosmological evolution, as a broader view of evolutionary change, provides the opportunity to explain the causal relationships behind evolution not only in biological systems but in the universe as a whole. For a lucid introduction to this topic see Jacob Bronowski’s essay New Concepts in the Evolution of Complexity (1977). Excellent popular books on cosmological evolution include Timothy Ferris’ books Coming of age 4 in the Milky Way (1988) and
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