Iran - Iran Iran is the 18th largest country of the world...

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Iran Iran is the 18th largest country of the world, currently holding about 72,000,000 people inside its 7,000,000 km perimeter. Iran has a vast variety of flora and fauna, much like a more compact version of the United States. Although Iran has a small Arab minority, mainly in the south and near the Iraq border, Iranians are not Arab and they will be very insulted if you call them that . The police won't save you. General Iran is an old country, dating back to 900 B.C. (or 3200 B.C. if you count Elam). Iran's history is divided into two parts by historians, Ancient Iran and post-Islamic Iran . Iranians have called their country "Iran" since ancient times, the name being ultimately derived from Airyanem kshathra, or "land of the Aryans". The first Iranian empire had its origins in Fars province (Parsa in Old Persian), so the Greeks called the country "Persis," whence "Persia" is derived .That name was used in the West until 1935, when the Shah politely asked everyone to start using the name Iran. At one point or another throughout its history, Iran has had Egypt, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Transoxiana, the Caucasus, Punjab, and northern Greece under its rule, all of which has been lost to various other empires, such as the Arabs, Mongols, Russia and Britain. Iran uses a solar calendar, invented by the famous Omar Khayyam . Each year starts at the first day of spring, celebrated by a traditional holiday named Nowrouz (meaning The Renewed Day ). Iran's official language is Persian or Farsi, and the official script is the Arabic alphabet with the addition of four letters to make up for sounds which Arabic lacks. o Persian is not related to Arabic, despite the large number of loanwords. Persian is an Indo-European language, which makes it related to Hindi and most languages spoken in Europe, including English. Old Persian was rather similar to Sanskrit, though it evolved and picked up a fair amount of vocabulary from Arabic.
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A good analogy for Farsi's linguistic situation is actually English: just as English is a Germanic language with substantial Romance (specifically French) vocabulary, Farsi is an Indo-European language with substantial Semitic (specifically Arabic) vocabulary. Just as French-derived words in English are more "high-class" or "technical" than the Germanic ones, the Arabic imports in Farsi generally deal with more sophisticated topics (for the reason why, see this ). For instance, in the same way that English government comes from Old French and is clearly related to the Modern French gouvernement (same thing), the Farsi word for "government" is the Arabic-derived hokumet (the Arabic is hukumah , but can be pronounced as hukumat in certain situations which we won't go into here). On the other hand, day-to-day words (or at least words whose meanings are very ancient) are almost inevitably Indo-European, just as 88% of the day-to- day vocabulary of English is Germanic. Star in English is clearly more closely related to the Dutch ster and German Stern than the French étoile or Italian stella , and the Farsi setāre
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