South Africa - South Africa The Republic of South Africa is...

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South Africa The Republic of South Africa is situated at the southern tip of Africa and comprises nine provinces. Bordering on Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland, and completely surrounding Lesotho, it formed part of the British Commonwealth until its independence in 1961, but continued to implement the segregationist laws collectively known as the Apartheid system until 1994, when Nelson Mandela was elected president in the country's first democratic elections. Its capital cities are Pretoria, Bloemfontein and Cape Town, which are recognised respectively as the executive, judicial and legislative capitals (i.e., a separate city for each branch of government). * A huge country slightly larger than Colombia (and a bit under twice the size of Texas), and with a population of about 50 million, South Africa is home to more Scenery Porn than you can imagine. With dry scrubland, desert, semi-tropical areas and mountains, it's a wonderful veld . South Africa has a somewhat. .. complex history, due largely to its diverse ethnic make-up and its extremely unfortunate colonial legacy of segregation. Even though a good deal of progress has been made over the past two decades, a good half of the population still lives below the poverty line, and housing shortages, not to mention a severely sub-standard education system, a very high crime rate (18,148 murders from April 2008 to March 2009* ), a reputation as the "Rape Capital of the World," and a one-in-ten HIV infection rate, all pose serious problems. South Africa's earliest inhabitants were most likely the ancestors of the Khoesan, while Nguni settlers moved down from sub-Saharan Africa around 300 AD, the most populous of these eventually forming the Xhosa and Zulu tribes. The first instance of European contact occurred in 1487, when Bartolomeu Dias, en route to India, rounded the Cape of Storms (later dubbed the Cape of Good Hope, which name is still in use today - the University of Cape Town's motto is spes bona ). However, South Africa was not colonised until 1652, when Jan van Riebeeck established a rest colony at the behest of the Dutch East India Company, mainly to supply passing vessels with fresh fruit in order to avoid scurvy. These Dutch settlers would later come to blows with British settlers who arrived during the early nineteenth century, when the British Empire annexed the territory; it is worth noting that for some centuries, the most prominent (or at
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least best-publicised) cultural divide in South Africa was between Dutch-speaking (later Afrikaans-speaking) whites and English-speaking whites. The Dutch eventually seceded from the coastal areas, then known as the Cape Colony, and migrated north in an exodus called the Great Trek in order to found the Orange Free State. ( Trek is an old Dutch-Afrikaans term that can refer to a journey, hence Star Trek .) During this time, a series of Frontier Wars were being waged by the white settlers, chiefly against the Xhosa, who were migrating south-west, and the Zulu, who had long held the northern areas. The Zulu in particular expanded greatly during the early nineteenth century under the leadership
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2012 for the course PSY PSY2012 taught by Professor Scheff during the Winter '09 term at Broward College.

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South Africa - South Africa The Republic of South Africa is...

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