Turkey - Turkey The European bit is top left Turkey one of a few countries spanning multiple continents NATO member and European Union applicant

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Turkey The European bit is top left. Turkey, one of a few countries spanning multiple continents. NATO member and European Union applicant. Turkey should not be compared with the rest of the Middle East. It doesn't use Arabic script or language, the country is strictly secular (the favourite national flamewar is over wearing headscarves in public) and it's culturally somewhat different. It is Muslim, true, but if a leader says so too loudly he risks military take-over by the "Guardian of Secularism", the army. This has happened multiple times for Islam, Communism, what ever the current ideology the Army doesn't like. Recently, however, this trend has changed; the latest indication of a coup attempt lead to a strong public backlash against the Armed Forces. It seems that the Turkish military is no longer a viable force in politics. Historically, Turkey is synonymous with the Ottoman Empire, which was in fact referred to as the "Turkish Empire" or "Imperium Turcicum" by its contemporaries. Since the end of the Turkish Empire, this period has become known as the Ottoman or Osmanic Empire, just as the Eastern Roman Empire has become known as the Byzantine Empire. At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned three continents and controlled vast swathes of North Africa, Eastern Europe, the Balkans and the Middle East. It's main opponents for most of its lifetime were the Habsburgs and the Venetians; the former finally turned the tables on the Turks following the last siege of Vienna while the latter were eventually rendered powerless by the Italian Wars of 1494-1559. In the last centuries of its life, the Ottoman Empire also came into conflict with the Russian Empire, who made some serious gains in the Caucasus. Following the First World War, the empire collapsed, but the institution of the Turkish Sultan actually outlived the Habsburg Emperor and the Russian Tsar by around four years. During its life, the Ottoman Empire served as the Big Bad
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for Christendom, since it had destroyed the Byzantine Empire and made rapid gains into Europe. The only ally it had in Europe was France, who was squeezed on all sides by Habsburg possessions. Turkey, as the Ottoman Empire, was initially neutral during World War One . Before the conflict, it was being wooed by Imperial Germany, who invested heavily in Turkey, created the Berlin- Baghdad railway (Iraq and most of the Middle East being a part of the Ottoman Empire at that time) and helped modernise the Ottoman army. After the British forcefully requisitioned two warships ordered by the Ottoman Government, Turkey fell further into the orbit of the Central Powers, and officially joined the war after a German False Flag Operation . During World War One , Turkey fought mainly against the British Empire and her colonies/dominions like Australia, New Zealand, India and Canada in the Middle East and on the Gallipoli peninsula. The Gallipoli Campaign is notable for being a pilgrimage site for Australians and New Zealanders due to the
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2012 for the course PSY PSY2012 taught by Professor Scheff during the Winter '09 term at Broward College.

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Turkey - Turkey The European bit is top left Turkey one of a few countries spanning multiple continents NATO member and European Union applicant

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