11:28:11 - TheRiseofChina 16:02 I. History: Overview a. The...

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The Rise of China 16:02 I. History: Overview a. The Middle Kingdom 1. Domestic Patterns Multi-state Warring Similar to European System, separate nation states engaged in continuous war and struggle Ended early, 222BC Ch’in got the upper hand and unified area After this initial unification, pattern emerges that continues until 19 th century: dynasties Would rule for centuries, then crisis or outside invasion would occur and there would be a different dynasty China is like the Roman Empire if it had persisted for >2000 years Mandarins : Chinese central government form of indirect rule, but had a class of officials, chosen on the basis of merit, completely disconnected from families, eunuchs Built canals Stored grain Hedging against periodic famines Great Wall By 19 th century, ~50,000 characters in Chinese language, barrier to mass literacy, want to sustain educated monopoly of Mandarin class 2. International World was divided into separate systems, only weakly interacted with one another at distance There was a Chinese system, China overwhelmingly powerful Features:
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States that China interacted with: Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Southeast Asia Relationship was not of direct rule but rather a tributary system Ceremonial acknowledgement that China was the Middle Kingdom Symbolic Security threat from the Steppe, vast area of grasslands that stretches through the center of Eurasia, China subject to predatory nomadic incursions from the Steppe Giant raids Responded by building the Great Wall, immense investment in social labor and capital System of walls Despite defense, Mongols seized Beijing and established their own dynasty, Yuan , only 100 years or so This is when there were 2 attempts made to invade/conquer Japan Kamikaze stopped Chinese Larger pattern of Insularity Isolation China by 1500 was the world’s largest economy, continued into 19 th century Technologically advanced Didn’t do anything outside their system 1400’s Ming dynasty: Chinese built “Star Raft”, fleet of ships much larger than European ships, sailed around Indian Ocean Came back, Why? Cultural arrogance, didn’t see anything that they wanted Government in Beijing feared merchants would gain power b. Century of Humiliation
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Early arrival of Europeans, even before the 19 th century Portuguese and Dutch took over Taiwan Ming Dynasty built a fleet and expelled them 19 th Century new class of actors: British, equipped with industrial revolution tools, pulled ahead of Chinese Had previously been inferiors Attempt to open up China: Silver and currency that went into China and didn’t come out Europeans wanted things from China, Chinese didn’t want anything from the rest of the world Forced Chinese to open markets, gave them Opium, only thing they wanted Chinese blasted into submission until they accepted the import of Opium into their country, created demand
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11:28:11 - TheRiseofChina 16:02 I. History: Overview a. The...

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