exam2 - Ariel Multak International Politics Exam 2...

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Ariel Multak International Politics Exam 2 IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINITION 1. security dilemma The security dilemma is a consequence of anarchy. It is a Realist model that explains war regardless of state intent. It is based on the assumption that states want nothing but to be secure. States will always feel threatened by their neighbor’s accumulation of power. The argument of the security dilemma is that the defensive measures taken by one will invariably be seen as offensive in the eyes of others. The rivalry and competition in arms races and other balancing mechanisms leads to instability and threatens war. The idea is that states buy arms in order to protect themselves, and they tend to over-arm because they see their neighbors arming themselves and are unsure of their neighbors’ intent. The security dilemma varies in intensity depending on whether arms are offensive (strong) or defensive (mild) in character. 2. the ‘stag hunt’ The ‘stag hunt’ was conceptualized by Rousseau, a French Enlightenment thinker. It presents a metaphor for the idea that cooperation between states is difficult because of the tendency of states to cheat in situations of anarchy. According to the ‘stag hunt,’ when states are working collectively toward a goal, if a smaller, more direct option presents itself, then there will be a state that will break from the group to serve its own self- interest. Rousseau shows that in order for the collective action of states to be successful, continuous cooperation and allegiance between states is crucial. 3. anarchy (2 senses) The varieties of anarchy are derived from Hobbes' Leviathan (1651). Anarchy in the State of Nature occurs in the absence of a sovereign power to create order and thereby limit individual vulnerability. The State of Nature is nasty, brutish, and short; it is the acute lack of individual, existential security. Although it is free, it is highly insecure because there is intense violence interdependence; violence is so high in the state of nature that state systems will not be able to coexist. The establishment of the state, or leviathan, will provide order in anarchy. Anarchy in the State of War occurs when states have formed under sovereign authorities and compete for power (whether through open war or by preparing for war). In the state of war, states will always be preparing for, or be on the brink of, war. Life is nasty and brutish, but sustainable because security is high (low violence interdependence). It is less dangerous than State of Nature anarchy because states are more survivable than individual human beings, but heightened violence interdependence may threaten to throw states into a State of Nature. 4. absolute vs. relative gains
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exam2 - Ariel Multak International Politics Exam 2...

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