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Unformatted text preview: IP EXAM III- IDs 18:46 soothing commerce Idea presented by Montesquieu in his book, Spirit of Laws. It basically states that commerce causes peace. This is because commerce has a soothing effect and will take the place of war. In the international system, the romances of violence (passion, glory, and religion) are becoming less important than the economy and commerce. The Wealth of Nations Written by Adam Smith in 1776, this presents the idea that free markets are more productive and beneficial to their society. Additionally, Smith presents his argument on commerce and how over time it affected the incentive for war. He concerns himself with 3 main focuses: economic opportunity cost, martial skills, and level of destruction. He explains that as we transition through the 4 periods (hunting, pastoral, agricultural, and manufacturing), economic opportunity cost and level of destruction goes up while martial skill drops. Through this, he explains why commerce will take the place of war. Sociology of Imperialisms (1919) The book written by Schumpeter that states that WW1 was not caused by capitalist elements, but rather by atavisms. In other words, WW1 was caused by relics of the past that somehow still held on its effects to today. Additionally, WW1 was started by the least commercial states (Austria, Hungary, and Russia). Because these states held on to traditions and rituals, they had higher classes of people who controlled the state and foreign policy- those classes were the cause of the war. high politics and low politics This idea was proposed by David Mitrany in his work, A Working Peace System (1943). High Politics are the factors between states that could cause war. Some types of High Politics are diplomacy and sovereignty. Low Politics, however, are factors that do not cause war, such as economics and welfare. According to Mitrany, we need to focus on cooperating through Low Politics because that will eventually result in cooperation in High Politics. spill-over According to Mitrany, there are two types of politics- high politics and low politics. High Politics are the factors that can cause war while Low Politics are factors that do not cause war. Mitranys spill-over idea is that if states can focus on cooperating through low politics, they will eventually start cooperating in high politics. Thus, states can indirectly go from cooperating in low politics to cooperating in high politics....
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course INT POL AS.190.213 taught by Professor Danieldeudney during the Fall '11 term at Johns Hopkins.
- Fall '11