IP_final - International Politics Final Study Guide...

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International Politics Final – Study Guide INDENTIFICATION AND DEFINITION 1. “soothing commerce” In the Spirit of Laws (1748), Montesquieu wrote that the rise of commerce would produce peace, as commerce has a soothing effect. Commerce will lead to less violence, as it will result in the reduction of commitment to passions, particularly related to religion and the pursuit of glory, which had been sources of tendencies toward violence in the international system. He writes that the “romance of violence” would have less and less appeal over time; the indiscriminate character of modern warfare means it is so destructive that there is no longer pursuit of individual glory on the battlefield. Finally, an aristocratic ethos had been prone to war, but with the rise of the middle class, that was replaced by the bourgeois ethos, which was primarily concerned with accumulating more wealth. 2. The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith, in The Wealth of Nations (1776), claims that mercantilism is misguided in terms of its idea of wealth and how to increase wealth. Smith redefines wealth as production and wage rate. He believed that the economy should not features tariffs, guilds, or monopolies, and that nations should not possess colonies. In this work, Smith laid out his idea of laissez-faire economics, which is an economic system of no government interference; supposedly, an “invisible hand” will guide the economy, and order will emerge from the aggregate of individual pursuits of self-interest. 3. The Sociology of Imperialisms (1919) After WWI, Joseph Schumpter wrote The Sociology of Imperialisms (1919) in an attempt to explain a power anomaly and to update the liberal argument in the face of the world war. He argues that WWI was not caused by the capitalist elements, but by atavisms, or relics of the past. War was not started by the most commercial states, but rather by the least commercial – namely Austria, Germany, Hungary, and Russia. This occurred because old classes/aristocracies still devoted to glory, rituals, pastimes, and prerogatives still controlled those states and their foreign policies. 4. “spill-over” In low politics, cooperation spill-over creates the possibility for high politics, because states become locked together and the high domain is more tractable to solution. It is an indirect strategy for establishing world order. Spill-over strategy works by trading away sovereignty in pieces so that authoritative competence is transferred from authorities at the state-level to those at the international level. “high politics” vs. “low politics” The idea of “high politics” vs. “low politics” was proposed by David Mitrany in his work A Working Peace System . “High politics” were outlined as issues of national security and “low politics” were defined as economic and social affairs. According to Mitrany, we
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should focus on cooperation through “low politics”, because through spill-over, that will eventually result in cooperation in “high politics.” 5. “dialectical functionalism”
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course INT POL AS.190.213 taught by Professor Danieldeudney during the Fall '11 term at Johns Hopkins.

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IP_final - International Politics Final Study Guide...

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