Review for Midterm 1
IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINITION
– Association of Greek city-states centralized in Athens that collects
tributes from all allies, whether democratic or oligarchic in political structure. Athens’
heavy-handed control of the League prompted the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War.
– Leader of Athens during the Peloponnesian War. Proponent of democracy.
Gave a famous funeral oration a year after the war ended.
– Corcyra was a neutral state but had a strong navy, so Corcyra’s alliance was
big deal because it would determine which way naval power would go. Corcyra
experiences an atrocious civil war, which stimulates the breakdown of social order and
family order. The meanings of words are perverted, concepts fundamentally shift, and
there is a shift in what is socially acceptable.
– After the Persians invade Greece twice – in 490 under Darius and in 480
under Xerxes – the Greeks retaliated. Although the Greeks were outnumbered, they
fought and won key battles at Thermapylae, Marathon, and Salamis. Salamis was unique
in that it was a naval battle; Themistocles is known for having led the Greeks to an epic
victory at sea.
– Alcibiades was an Athenian strategist during the Peloponnesian War. The
Athens’ Sicilian Expedition was his idea.
– Cleon’s state allegiance fluctuated throughout the Peloponnesian War. He was an
imprudent ruler of Athens whose leadership followed Pericles’. He supported the
punishment of the Mytilenean rebels.
– Advances in military technology altered composition of the warrior class and
the fashion in which battles were fought. During the Bronze Age, bronze weapons were
expensive, meaning only elites possessed them, and therefore establishing a pyramidal
social structure. However, with the advent of iron weapons, which were not only stronger
but also cheaper, the weapons were more broadly distributed, and thus a greater number
of ordinary citizens could possess them. The use of iron weapons in the military lead to
the implementation of the hoplite infantry formation: heavily armed infantrymen fought
together in close coordination. Iron weapons and the hoplite formation were employed in
Sparta, meaning a large majority of the male population was involved in defense, and the
widespread involvement led ultimately to the establishment of a broad oligarchy.
military basis of Greek oligarchy
military basis of Greek democracy
nomos vs. phusis
– “nomos” = law, morality vs. “phusis” = nature; Thucydides’
worldview was based on natural materialism, which is defined by natural convention and
social morality. He defines human nature by three key characteristics: fear, honor, and
self-interest; he claims that it is the play of these characteristics that determine the shape
of politics, and by extension, the world.