1a_Carbs_SV_V2 - chapter 2 Fuel for Exercising Muscle...

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Unformatted text preview: chapter 2 Fuel for Exercising Muscle: Metabolism and Hormonal Control “Physical ac+vity, athle+c performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by op+mal nutri+on.” ACSM, ADA, & CA Position Stand on Nutrition & Athletic Performance, 2009 1 Metabolism and Bioenerge+cs: Overview •  Carbohydrate, fat, and protein are substrates that are involved in metabolism. •  Bioenerge+cs refers to the process of conver+ng the energy stored in these substrates to a usable form. •  The energy derived from food is stored in cells in the form of… •  ____ serves as the immediate source of energy for most body func+ons. Metabolism and Bioenerge+cs: Overview •  When are fat, carbohydrate, and protein used to make ATP? •  The main source of ATP produc+on is: 2 Kilocalorie (kCal) •  Energy in biological systems is measured in ______. –  ….. refers to the amount of heat energy needed to raise 1 g of water from 1 °C. –  ________ = 1,000 calories •  Calorie (w/ a capital “C”) can be used instead of kilocalorie. •  One Calorie = _________= 1,000 calories Carbohydrates •  How are they classified? •  What is the most common sugar? 3 Glucose •  What is it also known as? •  What is its structure? What is a unique characteris+c of glucose? 4 What happens to glucose once it is absorbed by the SI or is produced by the liver? •  Glucose is … Glycogen •  What is it? •  Where is it stored? 5 Sucrose •  What is it also known as? •  What is its structure? The Importance of Dietary Fiber •  Gives plants structure. •  Cannot be digested by the body. Therefore, a diet high in fiber… –  Reduces Risk of Colorectal Cancer –  Prevents Obesity •  Lowers Blood Cholesterol •  Controls Blood Glucose Levels. To be learned on your own. 6 Water Soluble Fiber •  It is very viscous (thick) and slows down the rate of absorp+on of other carbohydrates. –  Therefore, a diet high in water soluble fiber: •  Prevents drama+c rises in blood glucose. •  Helps control symptoms of diabetes. To be learned on your own. Water Soluble Fiber: •  Hinders absorp+on of cholesterol and reduces synthesis of cholesterol in small intes+ne. –  Therefore, a diet high in water soluble fiber decreases risk blood cholesterol levels. •  Oats are a good source of water soluble fiber. To be learned on your own. 7 Water Insoluble Fiber •  Gives bulk to stools. –  Therefore, a diet high in water insoluble fiber: •  Reduces transit +me for fecal ma^er, and –  Thus, reduces the risk of colorectal cancer. •  Whole wheat bread is a good example of water insoluble fiber. To be learned on your own. Fiber Content of Common Foods Which of the following foods has the most total fiber? Soluble fiber? Insoluble Fiber? To be learned on your own. 8 Where is carbohydrate stored/contained? •  _____% is contained within the blood (as blood glucose); •  _____% is stored in the liver (as liver glycogen); •  ______% is stored within the muscle (as muscle glycogen). On average, how many kcal of carbohydrate can a person store? Applica+on •  In what order are stores of carbohydrates used during a marathon? •  How does the body maintain running pace at the end of a marathon when carbohydrate stores are completely empty? 9 What are the some of the roles of carbohydrates? 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  Serve as fuel for the CNS Serve as a metabolic primer Spare protein Prevent ketosis Quick, readily available energy source Integra+ve Ques+on Why may it be more ra+onal to recommend adequate carbohydrate intake rather than an excess of protein to increase muscle mass through heavy resistance training? 10 ...
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