1b_Carb_Review_Sheet - Carbohydrates: Review Reading...

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Unformatted text preview: Carbohydrates: Review Reading Assignment: Read pp. 48 ­49 (through Carbohydrate), read pp. 328 ­329 (Nutrition and Sport through Carbohydrate), and refer to lecture notes when completing this review. Section 1: Definitions Students should be able to define the following terms and provide examples: Example: Bioenergetics refers to the process of breaking down an energy substrate and releasing energy. For example, within a glucose molecule, energy is stored within chemical bonds. During bioenergetics, the bonds are broken and energy is released. 1. Adenosine Triphosphate 14. Glucagon 27. Monosaccharides 2. Bioenergetics 15. Gluconeogenesis 28. Norepinephrine 3. Blood sugar 16. Glucose 29. Oxaloacetate 4. Carbohydrate 17. Glycogen 30. Phosphatase 5. Calorie 18. Glycogen phosphorylase 31. Polysaccharides 6. Complex Carbohydrate 19. Glycogen synthase 32. Simple Carbohydrate 7. Dextrose 20. Glycogenesis 33. Starch 8. Disaccharides 21. Glycogenolysis 34. Substrates 9. Epinephrine 22. Hexose 35. Sucrose 10. Exercise Physiology 23. High Fructose Corn Syrup 36. Table Sugar 11. Fiber 24. Ketosis 37. Water Insoluble Fiber 12. Fructose 25. Kilocalorie 38. Water Soluble Fiber 13. Galactose 26. Metabolism Section 2: Short Answers 39. Draw the structure of a: a. Glucose molecule b. Sucrose molecule c. Unit of glycogen 40. Explain why water insoluble fiber decreases the risk of colorectal cancer. 41. Explain why water soluble fiber is an important dietary component of a person with diabetes. Example: 42. Explain why water soluble fiber is an important dietary component of a person with high cholesterol. Slows down rate of absorption of cholesterol by binding with bile acids (the liver synthesizes bile acids out of cholesterol) - as the acids are bound, cholesterol is withdrawn from the blood and converted to bile acids to replace the deficit, and thus, lowers blood cholesterol. Also, since it also causes a reduction in rate of glucose absorption, then it indirectly causes a reduction in rate of insulin released by the pancreas. Since insulin stimulates the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver, then a reduction in insulin levels in the blood would further reduce blood cholesterol levels 43. List in order from largest to smallest amount where carbohydrates are found within the body. 44. Describe (in detail) the major roles that carbohydrates serve in the body. 45. Explain (in detail) how ketosis develops. Draw an illustration to accompany your explanation. 46. What are the ramifications of: 1) an increase in glucose production from an increase in protein metabolism and 2) accumulation of ketone bodies? 47. Explain what is meant by, “Fat burns in a carbohydrate flame”. In description, include a basic illustration of the mechanism. 48. What nutrients (include all, but also identify the nutrient that contributes the most and the least) are used as fuel for energy: a. At rest? b. During exercise lasting up to 90 minutes? c. During exercise lasting longer than 120 minutes? 49. How many kCal of energy does 1 gram of carbohydrate provide? 50. Carbohydrates are composed of what molecules? 51. What are the 3 classifications of carbohydrates that we discussed in class? 52. Carbohydrates are placed into one of these classifications (see question above) based on what factor? 53. Which simple sugar: a. is referred to as “blood sugar?” b. is also known as “dextrose?” c. is referred to as “table sugar?” d. the most commonly ingested? 54. Upon ingestion, what are the possible fates of carbohydrates? Include in your discussion what condition is required for each possible fate to occur. 55. In terms of roles, what is the difference between muscle and liver glycogen? 56. Among all of the types of carbohydrates, which one provides little, if any, energy? 57. A carbohydrate with one sugar unit is given what classification? 58. A carbohydrate with two sugar units is given what classification? 59. A carbohydrate with three or more sugar units is given what classification? 60. What is the most common sugar unit? 61. What is (are) the difference(s) between simple and complex carbohydrates? 62. What are examples of the most common monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides? 63. What is the chemical structure of a glucose molecule? 64. How many carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen molecules are within such carbohydrates as glucose and fructose? 65. What carbohydrate(s) is (are) used directly for energy? 66. When and how are proteins converted to glucose? 67. What is the storage form of carbohydrates in humans? In plants? 68. What is the relationship between water soluble fiber intake and both blood cholesterol level and blood glucose levels? 69. What population(s) would benefit the most from ingesting water soluble fiber? 70. How many Calories of carbohydrates should a person of average fitness and average dietary intake store? 71. When is protein spared? When is it used as a major energy source? Section 4: You should be able to apply the information discussed in class and contained within the assigned readings to the following scenarios: 72. Imagine that you are working with someone trying to lose weight. Explain to your client why dietary fiber is an important nutrient that should be consumed regularly. 73. What is the impact of a higher than recommended protein diet (and consequently, lower than recommended carbohydrates) on performance? 74. An athlete has the desire of increasing his lean body mass. Although he consumes a relatively well ­ balanced diet and is following a proper exercise prescription for increasing muscle mass, he is struggling to maintain his body weight. Why is it better to suggest to him that before he increases his protein intake, he first try increasing his carbohydrate intake? 75. A mother serves her children juices containing high fructose corn syrup. Explain to her the potential ramifications of consuming large quantities of HFCS. ...
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