2a_Fats_and_Proteins_SV_V2

2a_Fats_and_Proteins_SV_V2 - chapter 2 Fuel for Exercising...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: chapter 2 Fuel for Exercising Muscle: Metabolism and Hormonal Control Fat: Overview •  Provides substan1al energy at _____ and ___________________. •  Body stores of fat are ________than carbohydrate reserves •  Fat is stored as ___________ and must be broken down to ___________________ to be used in metabolism •  Fat is _____ readily available for cellular metabolism compared to carbohydrate. •  _____ energy is derived from breaking down of fat (_____ kcal/g) compared to carbohydrate (_____ kcal/g) 1 Lipids •  What is the generic structure of a lipid? •  When compared to a carbohydrate, how is it… –  Similar? –  Different? What is the most common lipid? 2 There are two types of FA: •  Saturated FA •  Unsaturated FA To be learned on your own. Saturated FA •  Contain no double bonds between their carbons. •  Are mainly found in: –  Animal products, palm oil, and coconut oil. •  Are solid at room temperature. To be learned on your own. 3 A diet high in saturated FA increase one’s risk of cardiovascular disease because... •  In the liver, saturated FA are converted to cholesterol. –  High cholesterol levels promote atherosclerosis (i.e., the build ­up of plaque on the innermost layer of the walls of blood vessels). •  Blood vessels narrowed by a buildup of “bad” cholesterol are more likely to be blocked by blood clots, causing a heart aUack or stroke. To be learned on your own. Unsaturated FA: •  Contain at least 1 double bond between their carbons. •  Are found in vegetable products and fish. •  Are liquid at room temperature. •  May decrease one’s risk of cardiovascular disease by: •  lowering LDL cholesterol (“bad” cholesterol), and •  decreasing blood clot forma1on. To be learned on your own. 4 The presence of absence of double bonds between the carbon atoms is the major structural difference between sat. and unsat. FA To be learned on your own. There are two types of Unsaturated FA: •  Monounsaturated FA •  Polyunsaturated FA To be learned on your own. 5 •  Contain 1 double bond between its Carbons. •  Examples: •  Olive, Peanut, and Canola Oil •  Avocados To be learned on your own. Polyunsaturated FA •  Contain 2 or more double bonds between their carbons. •  Examples: •  Corn, Soybean, Sunflower, and Safflower Oil •  Omega 3 ­FA (Fish Oil). To be learned on your own. 6 Side Note: Hydrogenated Fats •  Hydrogena1on refers to the addi1on of hydrogens to unsaturated fats. –  Adding H changes the structure of a Fat. –  This process makes an unsaturated FA take on characteris1cs of saturated FA (e.g., the FA becomes straighter, denser, and less soluble. •  Hydrogena1on is performed by manufacturers in order to increase the shelf ­life of products. •  Margarine, shortening, and certain types of candies, cookies, pre ­packaged snack foods, fried foods, baked goods, and salad dressings contain hydrogenated fats. To be learned on your own. Problems with hydrogenated fats: •  Results in the produc1on of trans FAs. •  During hydrogena1on, can’t control where H aUach to C –  Ocen1mes, H+ are added to opposite sides of carbon pairs forming a trans configura1on. FAs becomes straighter, denser, less soluble when H are added to opposites of a C-C double bond. To be learned on your own. 7 Problems with hydrogenated fats: •  Because hydrogenated fats taken on structural characteris1cs of saturated fats, hydrogenated fats pose similar health risks as saturated fats. •  They: –  Raise blood levels of LDL and –  Lower blood levels of HDL, and thus, –  Increase risk of heart disease. To be learned on your own. If not needed for energy, where are triglycerides stored? •  Adipose Tissue •  Muscle •  Lipoproteins 8 When are triglycerides the primary source of energy? •  At rest. •  During low ­to ­moderate exercise. •  During a low ­calorie diet/starva1on. •  During prolonged exercise. 9 During exercise, when IMTG levels are low, FFA become the primary source of fat used for energy. Lipoproteins •  Commonly referred to as “Blood Cholesterol.” •  They are compounds that are: •  found in either the lymph system or blood stream, and •  composed of a core of lipids surrounded by a shell of phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins. •  Their primary func1on is to transport dietary cholesterol and triglycerides. To be learned on your own. 10 What are the most common lipoproteins? •  •  •  •  Chylomicrons High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) To be learned on your own. Chylomicrons •  What are some facts about their structure? –  They are the largest of the 4 major types of cholesterols. –  Compared to the other 3 types of cholesterols, they have the least amount of protein. •  What is their major func1on? –  They carry dietary cholesterol and triglycerides from small intes1ne to the liver via the lymph system. •  The liver breaks down the chylomicrons and sends the fat to the cells (including adipocytes) for either energy produc1on or storage. To be learned on your own. 11 VLDL and LDL •  What are they commonly referred to as? –  “Bad Cholesterol” •  What are come facts about their structure? –  They are “lipid dense.” •  At least 95% of their structure is made up of triglycerides and •  No more than 5% of their structure is made up of protein. To be learned on your own. VLDL and LDL •  One may have high “bad” cholesterol by ea1ng a diet not only high in dietary cholesterol, but also high in other sources that can be converted to VLDL by the liver. –  In the liver, VLDL is formed from excess intake of saturated fats, alcohol, dietary cholesterol, trans FA, hydrogenated oils, and carbohydrates. •  In the blood stream, lipoprotein lipase removes some triglycerides from VLDL. As a result, VLDL is converted into LDL. To be learned on your own. 12 VLDL and LDL •  What is the major func1on of VLDL and LDL? –  They transport triglycerides and dietary cholesterol to adipose 1ssue and muscle. •  Why are they considered “bad?” –  They have a high affinity for s1cking to walls of blood vessels, thereby, promo1ng atherosclerosis. –  Note: Atherosclerosis refers to thickening of the arterial wall and is associated with heart disease and stroke. To be learned on your own. •  •  •  •  VLDL and LDL are higher in people who: Are sedentary. Smoke Are overweight. Consume a diet high in dietary cholesterol, saturated fat, trans faUy acids, hydrogenated fats. To be learned on your own. 13 HDL •  Made by the liver and small intes1ne. •  Referred to as “Good” Cholesterol. –  It protects against heart disease (so, higher numbers are beUer). •  What are some facts about their structure? –  They are “Protein Dense,” •  With protein making up 50% of their structure. •  What is their major func1on? –  They remove cholesterol from arterial walls and carry cholesterol to liver where it is converted into bile and used to digest fat in the intes1ne. To be learned on your own. HDL is higher in people who: •  Exercise Aerobically. –  Sidenote: Resistance training has not been shown to increase levels of HDL. •  Do NOT smoke. •  Consume alcohol in modera1on. To be learned on your own. 14 Na1onal Cholesterol Educa1on Program’s: Lipid & Lipoprotein Classifica8on LDL Cholesterol (mg/dL) <100 100–129 130–159 160–189 ≥190 Op1mal Near op1mal/above op1mal Borderline high High Very high To be learned on your own. Na1onal Cholesterol Educa1on Program’s: Lipid & Lipoprotein Classifica8on HDL Cholesterol (mg/dL) <40 Low ≥60 High To be learned on your own. 15 Na1onal Cholesterol Educa1on Program’s: Lipid & Lipoprotein Classifica8on Total Cholesterol (mg/dL) <200 Desirable 200–239 Borderline high ≥240 High To be learned on your own. What are the major roles of FA? •  Fat is a… –  Primary Energy Source –  Good Energy Reserve 16 Protein: Overview •  Protein can be used as a _____ source of energy. It can be: •  broken down to its basic units —amino acids — to be used for energy, •  converted to _____ via gluconeogenesis, and/or •  converted to _____ via lipogenesis. •  Protein can supply: •  2 to 5% of energy at rest and during exercise las1ng less than an hour •  _____ % of energy during prolonged exercise (las1ng 1 to 2 hours). •  20 to 40% during extremely long bouts of exercise. Proteins •  What is protein made up of? •  What is the generic structure of an AA? 17 What are the types of AA? •  ______ Nonessen1al AA –  Can be made from other compounds within the body •  _____ Essen1al AA –  Cannot be made within the body –  Must be consumed. Complete Proteins 18 FOOD Eggs (whole) Eggs (whites) Chicken / Turkey Fish Lean Beef Cow's Milk Unpolished Rice Brown Rice White Rice Peanuts Peas PROTEIN RATING 100 88 79 70 69 60 59 57 56 55 55 Protein Ra1ngs (con8nued): FOOD Whole Wheat Soy beans Whole-grain Wheat Corn Dry Beans White Potato PROTEIN RATING 49 47 44 36 34 34 19 Complementary Proteins To ensure consump1on of all essen1al amino acids, either consume complete proteins or a combina?on of incomplete proteins: –  Black beans with … •  brown rice •  Corn •  Whole wheat –  Peanut buUer and whole wheat bread –  Virtually any combina1on of grains, fruits, and vegetables. To be learned on your own. Fate of AA: •  Used to make protein structures, hormones, or other amino acids. •  Converted to glucose or used for energy. •  Converted to triglycerides. 20 Majors Func1ons of Protein 1.  Structure 2.  Growth, Repair, & Maintenance 3.  Deriva1ve of Hemoglobin, enzymes, hormones, An1bodies 21 ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online