2b_Fats+and+Proteins+Review+Sheet - Fats and Proteins...

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Unformatted text preview: Fats and Proteins Review Sheet Reading Assignment: Read pp. 48 ­49 (through Rate of Energy Release), read pp. 333 – 335 (Fat and Protein), and refer to your lecture notes when completing this review. Section 1: Definitions Define the following terms (where appropriate, you should be able to include illustrations and/or a description of what conditions, hormones, and enzymes engage the given process): Example: Glycerol is a 3 ­carbon alcohol; it is the fat ­free portion of a triglyceride, and thus, serves as the carbon skeleton of a triglyceride. 1. Adipocytes 2. Adipose Tissue 3. Amino 4. Amino Acids 5. Atherosclerosis 6. Chylomicrons 7. Complete Proteins 8. Complimentary Proteins 9. Deamination 10. Essential AA 11. Free Fatty Acids 12. Glycerol 13. Gluconeogenesis 14. HDL 15. Hormone ­sensitive lipase 16. Hydrogenated Fats 17. Hydrogenation 18. Intramuscular Triglycerides 19. LDL 20. Lipase 21. Lipids 22. Lipogenesis 23. Lipolysis 24. Lipoprotein Lipase 25. Lipoproteins 26. Monounsaturated FA Section 2: Short Answers 40. Compare and contrast lipid and carbohydrate structures: a) how are they similar? b) how are they different? 41. Draw the generic structure of: a) a fatty acid b) a glycerol c) a triglyceride 27. Negative Nitrogen Balance 28. Nitrogen Balance 29. Nonessential AA 30. Omega ­3 FA 31. Polyunsaturated FA 32. Positive Nitrogen Balance 33. Protein Ratings 34. Saturated FA 35. Trans FA 36. Transamination 37. Triglycerides 38. Unsaturated FA 39. VLDL Example: 42. Explain the significance behind having a greater Carbon to Oxygen ratio in a fat structure (compared to a carbohydrate). Since fat has a greater C:O ratio than carbohydrates (i.e., more C for every one O molecule), fat has more carbon ­hydrogen binding and less carbon ­oxygen binding than carbohydrates. Energy is stored within carbon ­hydrogen bonds, but not within carbon ­oxygen bonds. Thus, the fat is denser with energy. 43. Identify the two forms of usable energy in a triglyceride. 44. Quantify the energy content of 1 gram of fat, and compare that to the same amount (i.e., 1 gram) of carbohydrate. 45. Distinguish between saturated FA and unsaturated FA, by: a) Illustrating their generic structures: b) describing where they are found: c) describing their condition at room temperature: d) describing their impact on health (i.e., explain how a diet high in saturated FA increases one’s risk of heart disease and why consumption of unsaturated FA may reduce ones risk of heart disease). 46. Describe the relationship between coronary artery disease and intake of: a) fiber: b) saturated FA intake: c) Omega ­3 FA intake: d) total cholesterol levels e) hydrogenated oils. 47. Explain why the food industry prefers to use hydrogenated oils instead of unsaturated fats. 48. Describe how consumption of hydrogenated oils increases a person’s risk of heart disease. 49. Provide examples of foods that contain: a) saturated FA: b) monounsaturated FA: c) polyunsaturated FA: 50. Characterize the distribution of fat within an average ­sized person by listing (in order of magnitude) where they are stored. 51. List the circumstances for when mobilization of FFA increases. 52. List the circumstances for when triglycerides are the major/primary source of energy. 53. Describe the fate of triglycerides in lipoproteins and in adipose tissue when intramuscular triglycerides are low (illustrate mechanism). 54. Describe the structure and function of each of the most common lipoproteins. 55. Explain why VLDL and LDL are referred to as “bad cholesterol.” 56. List the common characteristics that are associated in people who have high levels of VLDL and LDL. 57. Explain why HDL is referred to as “good cholesterol.” 58. Identify who are more likely to have high levels of HDL. 59. Recommend techniques for increasing HDL levels and reducing LDL levels. 60. Classify blood lipid profiles as good or bad (i.e., list what are optimal, borderline, and pool blood lipid profiles, which include Total Cholesterol, LDL/VLDL, and HDL). 61. Describe the primary roles of fat (be sure to elaborate and not just list the roles). 62. Compare and contrast the generic protein structure with both fat and carbohydrate structures. a) how is it similar to fat and carbohydrates? b) how is it different from fat and carbohydrates? 63. Draw the generic structure of an amino acid. 64. List the possible of fates of protein once it is catabolized by the small intestine; and explain when each of these possible fates may occur. 65. Explain what happens to excess AA (i.e., AA that are not needed to build protein structure or for energy). 66. Provide three examples of a complete protein and 3 examples of an incomplete protein. 67. Why is energy production not one of protein’s major roles? 68. State the major functions of protein, and clarify why energy production is not one of protein’s major roles. 69. When comparing 1 gram of fat to 1 gram carbohydrate, 1 gram of fat will contain more, less, or the same amount of energy? Why? 70. Among all of the types of macronutrients (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates), which one provides you with the greatest amount of energy (gram for gram)? 71. Imagine that you are starving and open the refrigerator door. You have the option of eating either 4 g of pure fat or 8 g of pure carbohydrate. Which one will provide you with the least amount of calories? ...
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