3c_Anaerobic+Energy+Systems+Review+Sheet - Anaerobic Energy...

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Unformatted text preview: Anaerobic Energy Systems Review Sheet Reading Assignment: You should read pp. 47  ­ 53 (Introduction through Glycolytic System) and refer to lecture notes when completing this review. Section 1. Definitions. Define the following terms. Where appropriate, include illustrations and/or a description of what conditions, hormones, enzymes engage the given process, etc. Example: 1. Adenosine Triphosphate An immediate source of energy used for energy requiring processes; also considered a high energy compound for storing and conserving a usable form of energy. 2) Bioenergetics 3) Metabolism 4) Anabolic Reaction 5) Catabolism Reaction 6) Catalyze/Catalysis 7) Phosphorylation 8) Exergonic Reaction 9) Endergonic Reaction 10) ADP 11) ATPase 12) ATP-PCr Energy System 13) Immediate Energy System 14)Glycolysis 15)Anaerobic Glycolysis 16)Lactic Acid System 17)Oxidative System 18)Phosphocreatine (PCr) 19)Creatine Kinase 20)Aerobic Glycolysis 21)Energy Investment Phase 22)Energy Generation Phase 23)Glycogen Phosphorylase 24)Phosphofructokinase 25)Lactate Dehydrogenase 26)Lactate/Lactic Acid 27)Pyruvate/Pyruvic Acid 28)Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide 29)H+ Shuttle System 30)Cori Cycle 31)Myokinase Section 2: Short Answers Example: 32. Given that energy is stored within substrates (i.e., fats, proteins, and carbohydrates), explain why that energy is not directly used for energy. Describe the difference between the energy stored within the bonds of a macronutrient and energy stored within the bonds between the phosphates of ATP. The molecular bonds that hold substrates together are relatively weak, and therefore, provide little energy when broken. Rather, the energy in food molecular bonds must be released within the cells and then stored in the form of the high-energy compound, ATP. Separately, the bonds within substrates release minimal energy when broken whereas the bonds within ATP release up to 7.3 kcal of energy when broken (note. amount depends on which bond is broken). 33)Describe how energy stored within the bonds of macronutrients is harvested and converted into high energy bonds of an ATP molecule. 34)Calculate the number of kcal that are released when a specified number of ATP molecules are broken down. (For example, given that 5 ATP molecules are broken down into 5 ADP molecules, how much energy was released?) 35)List the three energy systems employed by the body to produce ATP. 36)State how much ATP and PCr can be stored in the body. 37)State how long stores of ATP can supply exercise of all out effort and how long ATP made from PCr can supply exercise of all out effort. 38)Provide a list of the 3 type of activities that will be primarily fueled by: a) stored ATP; b) the ATP-PCr energy system. 39)Illustrate how ATP is resynthesized by PCr. 40)Explain why maximal running speed can be maintained for only about 10 seconds. 41)What happens to Creatine Kinase activity during the following scenarios: a. large amount of cellular ADP b. a small amount of cellular ADP 42)What are the end-products from: a. The oxidation of glucose/muscle glycogen? b. Catabolism of glucose during anaerobic glycolysis/muscle glycogen? c. Catabolism of glucose/muscle glycogen during aerobic glycolysis? 43)Anaerobic glycolysis yields a gross gain of how many ATP: a. Per glucose molecule? b. Per unit of muscle glycogen? 44)Considering the fact that ATP is needed to "jump start" anaerobic glycolysis, what is the net gain of ATP from: a. One glucose molecule during anaerobic glycolysis? b. One unit of muscle glycogen during anaerobic glycolysis? 45)With regards to anaerobic glycolysis, list 3 examples of: a. Exergonic reactions? b. Endergonic reactions? 46)Where does anaerobic glycolysis occur in the muscle fiber? 47)List 3 activities that primarily rely on anaerobic glycolysis? 48)How many ATP are required to "jump start" the anaerobic breakdown of: a. One glucose molecule? b. One unit of muscle glycogen? 49)What is considered to be the rate-limiting step during anaerobic glycolysis? Why? 50)Knowing that there is a limited supply of NAD+ in the muscle cell, how is anaerobic glycolysis able to continue to produce ATP at high rates for more than 30 seconds of all-out exercise? (In other words, how is NAD+ regenerated during high intensity exercise?). Note. Describe the process in detail. 51)What is the fate of pyruvate during high intensity exercise compared to its fate during low to moderate intensity exercise? 52)Describe what enzyme has the greatest impact on the rate of anaerobic glycolysis (including how the enzyme is stimulated and inhibited). 53)Given a situation (e.g., sprinting 400 meters versus jogging 3 miles), identify the endproduct of glycolysis. 54)Compare and contrast immediate energy production and anaerobic glycolysis (for instance, discuss the number of steps for each energy system, which energy system produces the most amount of ATP, which energy system is the fastest, etc.). 55)Explain how phosphorylation of an ADP molecule occurs both anaerobically and aerobically. 56)State how many kcal are produced during the complete breakdown of a carbohydrate molecule and identify how much is lost as heat and how much is harvested and available for biological work. 57)Outline anaerobic glycolysis and illustrate in detail how ATP is made from both one glucose molecule and one glucose-6-phosphate (from glycegenolysis). 58)Contrast the differences between the energy-investing and energy-producing phases of anaerobic glycolysis. 59)Describe how glycogen phosphorylase is activated and explain its role in metabolism of muscle glycogen. 60)State: a) the gross production of ATP during anaerobic glycolysis from one glucose molecule, b) the gross production of ATP during anaerobic glycolysis from one glucose-6-phosphate (derived from glycegenolysis), c) the net production of ATP during anaerobic glycolysis from one glucose molecule; and d) the net production of ATP during anaerobic glycolysis from one glucose-6-phosphate (derived from glycegenolysis). 61)Illustrate the formation of lactate, include what events result in the accumulation of lactic acid. 62)List the advantages and disadvantages of lactate production. 63)Describe the fate of lactate once adequate amounts of oxygen become available. ...
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