4b_Aerobic_Metabolism_Review_Sheet

4b_Aerobic_Metabolism_Review_Sheet - “Bioenergetics:...

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Unformatted text preview: “Bioenergetics: Aerobic Production of ATP Review Sheet You should read pp. 47 ­59 (Oxidative System through Oxygen Needs) and refer to lecture notes when completing this review. Section 1: Definitions Where appropriate, include illustrations and/or a description of what conditions, hormones, enzymes engage the given process, etc. 1) Substrate ­level 11) H+ shuttle system Triglycerides Phosphorylation 12) NAD+ 22) Triglycerides in 2) Oxidative 13) FAD Lipoproteins Phosphorylation 14) GTP 23) Free Fatty Acids 3) Aerobic Glycolysis 15) Matrix 24) Lipase 4) Citric Acid Cycle/Kreb 16) Intermembrane space of 25) Lipoprotein lipase Cycle the mitochondria 26) Hormone ­sensitive lipase 5) Electron Transport 17) Inner membranes of the 27) Glyercol Chain/Respiratory Chain mitochondria 28) Beta Oxidation 6) Pyruvate 18) Outer membranes of the 29) Transamination 7) Acetyl CoA mitochondria 30) Deamination 8) Oxaloacetate 19) ATPase 31) Ammonia 9) Cytoplasm/Sarcoplasm 20) ATP synthase 32) Urea 10) Mitochondria 21) Intramuscular Section 2: Short Answers 33) Compare and contrast anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis (include brief drawings of mechanisms). 34) Compare and contrast the aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, FAs, and AAs (include brief drawings of mechanisms). 35) Provide an overview of how phosphorylation of an ADP molecule occurs both anaerobically and aerobically. 36) Draw aerobic glycolysis. 37) Summarize the importance of both the Kreb Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain. 38) Draw Kreb cycle. 39) Draw the key elements of the ETC. 40) Identify 3 activities that rely on anaerobic glycolysis as the main energy system for production of ATP. 41) Identify 3 activities that rely on aerobic metabolism as the main energy system for production of ATP. 42) Outline the complete breakdown of a carbohydrate and show how ATP is made as well as how many ATPs are made during the metabolism of both one glucose molecule and one glucose ­6 ­ phosphate (derived from glycegenolysis). In your drawing, highlight when substrate ­level phophorylation and oxidative phosphorylation occur. 43) State: a. the gross production of ATP during aerobic metabolism of one glucose molecule. b. the gross production of ATP during aerobic metabolism of one glucose ­6 ­phosphate (derived from glycegenolysis). c. the net production of ATP during aerobic metabolism of one glucose molecule. d. the net production of ATP during aerobic metabolism of one glucose ­6 ­phosphate (derived from glycegenolysis). 44) Illustrate how NAD+ is regenerated during high intensity exercise compared to how it is regenerated during low to moderate intensity exercise. 45) State: a. how many ATP can be generated from the oxidation of the Hydrogens removed from NADH molecule in the cytoplasm. b. how many ATP can be generated from the oxidation of the hydrogens removed from NADH in the mitochondria. c. how many ATP can be generated from the oxidation of the hydrogens removed from FADH2 molecule in the mitochondria. 46) Summarize the role of the hydrogen shuttle systems located long the outer membrane of a mitochondria. Provide a brief illustration. 47) Summarize what energy system is the primary energy system during hard to very hard intensity exercise as well as during the first few minutes of moderate intensity exercise. 48) List the major by ­products of the Kreb cycle and how they are used in the production of ATP. 49) Identify the final election acceptor and explain what would happen to the electron transport chain if this acceptor was not present. 50) Which energy system produces ATP at the slowest rate? 51) Which energy system produces the most amount of ATP per nutrient used? 52) When is the H+ shuttle system used? 53) What are the by ­products and end ­products of aerobic glycolysis? 54) Where do the following take place? a. Anaerobic glycolysis? b. Aerobic glycolysis? c. The Kreb Cycle? d. The Electron Transport Chain? e. Beta Oxidation? 55) When is the Electron Transport Chain used to recycle NAD+? 56) The removal of H+ from NADH results in the production of how many ATP? 57) The removal of H+ from FADH2 results in the production of how many ATP? 58) Where inside the mitochondria does oxidative phosphorylation take place? 59) What are the three sources of fat that may be used for energy production? What enzymes must be 60) activated in order to initiate lipolysis of the three sources of fat? 61) How many ATP are derived from a glycerol? One turn of beta oxidation? A 12 ­C FA chain? A triglyceride 62) with fatty acids that are each 14 carbons long? 63) What is the purpose of Beta Oxidation? 64) Where do amino acids enter into metabolism? 65) Illustrate (i.e., DRAW the mechanism) how NADH is recycled aerobically, and state under what circumstances will this occur. 66)Illustrate (i.e., DRAW the mechanism) anaerobically, and state under what circumstances will this occur. ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course ESS 3317 taught by Professor Abel during the Spring '12 term at Texas State.

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