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6a_Chapter+2_Hormones_SV - Neuroendocrinology •  The...

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Unformatted text preview: Neuroendocrinology •  The systema4c study of control systems. •  The control systems include: •  When are these control systems engaged? What do the control systems do? •  Sense a change in _____________ •  Organize an appropriate response. •  Deliver a message –  Via _________________________________ 1 Hormonal Responses to Exercise Regula4on and Ac4on •  The magnitude of the effect that hormones have on a target cell depends on: 2 Regula4on and Ac4on •  Hormones are secreted from endocrine glands. The major endocrine glands include: –  The hypothalamus and pituitary glands –  The thyroid and parathyroid glands –  The adrenal glands –  The pancreas –  The testes and ovaries To be learned on your own. Hormonal Control: Overview •  Hormones significantly affect metabolism •  Hormones are secreted directly into the blood and act as chemical signals to their target cells •  Hormones travel away from the cells that secrete them and specifically affect the ac4vi4es of other cells and organs •  2 types of hormones: steroid and nonsteroid •  Hormone secre4on is regulated by nega4ve feedback •  Hormone receptors can increase (up ­regula4on) or decrease (down ­regula4on) the ac4vity of its target 4ssue. To be learned on your own. 3 Hormonal Control: Overview (con4nued) •  A nega4ve feedback system regulates secre4on of most hormones •  The number of hormone receptors can be altered –  Upregula4on—increase in the number of available receptors –  Downregula4on—decrease in the number of available receptors To be learned on your own. Hormonal Control: Overview (con4nued) •  Hormones are secreted into the blood and then circulate to target cells where they bind to receptors on the target 4ssue •  Steroid hormones pass through the cell membrane to bind with receptors in the cell to directly ac4vate genes causing protein synthesis •  Nonsteroid hormones bind to receptors in the cell membrane and ac4vate second messenger systems which trigger numerous cellular processes To be learned on your own. 4 Hormonal Control of Metabolism During Exercise: Overview •  Plasma glucose is increased by the combined ac4ons of … •  _____helps glucose enter the cell, but declines during prolonged exercise •  When carbohydrate reserves are low, the body turns to more fat oxida4on, and lipolysis is increased, which is facilitated by decreases in _____ and increases in … Growth Hormone (GH) •  Secreted by the … •  Known as an anabolic agent •  Promotes muscle growth by: 5 Func4on (con+nued) •  Spares glycogen and helps maintain blood glucose levels by: –  ________________ mobiliza4on of FFAs by s4mula4ng lipolysis in the adipose 4ssue. –  ________________rate of carbohydrate u4liza4on. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine •  Secreted from what organ? •  S4mulate … •  Increases mobiliza4on of FFA 6 Epinephrine & Norepinephrine Following Training •  For any given workload, magnitude of release ____________ •  This parallels a reduc4on in the need for _______________ 7 Plasma Catecholamines During Exercise Following Training Cor4sol (glucocor4coid) •  Secreted from what organ? •  Maintains blood glucose during exercise and long ­term fas4ng by: –  Increasing mobiliza4on of FFA –  Blocking glucose entry into the cell thereby decreasing glucose u4liza4on. –  Increasing protein catabolism and s4mula4ng gluconeogenesis 8 Pancreas releases: •  Insulin: –  In response to hyperglycemia, Insulin promotes the uptake (as well as storage) of macronutrients, especially glucose •  Glucagon: –  In response to hypoglycemia, Glucagon… Hormonal Balance During Exercise •  During exercise, release of insulin decreases while release in E, NE, corisol, and glucagon increase an a^empt to… –  Maintain blood glucose levels. •  Less insulin and more E, NE, etc. means…. 9 Changes in Plasma Concentra4ons D.uring Cycling at 65% to 70% of VO2max In Summary, blood glucose is maintained during exercise and starva4on because: •  Mobiliza4on of glucose increase from where? •  This is ac4vated by what hormones? •  Mobiliza4on of FFA increases from where? •  This is ac4vated by what hormones? •  What is the effect of increased FFA mobiliza4on? 10 In Summary, blood glucose is maintained during exercise and starva4on because: •  Glucose is made. –  How? –  This is ac4vated by what hormones? •  Entry of glucose into cell is blocked. –  This is ac4vated by what hormones? –  What is the significance for the blocking of glucose entry into the cell? 11 ...
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