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Unformatted text preview: Nutrition and Your Personal Fitness Nutrition is
“the science of food, the nutrients and the
substances therein, their action, interaction,
and balance in relation to health and disease,
and the process by which the organism
ingests, absorbs, transport, utilizes, and
excretes food substances”-The Council on Food and
Nutrition of the American Medical Association Nutrition and Disease
6 out of 10 leading causes of death are
Chronic Diseases Chronic Diseases cause over 80% of all
deaths Prevention is the best approach to lessening
one’s chances of these diseases Physical Activity and Diet are 2 of the
leading lifestyle factors in the prevention
leading 6 Classes of Nutrients Macronutrients Carbohydrates Proteins Fats (lipids) Micronutrients Vitamins Minerals Water The Energy Nutrients
The Energy Nutrients
E n e r g y N u tr ie n ts
( E n e r g y = C a lo r ie s in N u tr itio n )
T h e T o ta l M a k e s U p Y o u r D a ily C a lo r ic In ta k e
A lc o h o l is a T o x in A d d in g 7 C a lo r ie s p e r G r a m
C a r b o h y d r a te s
4 C a lo r ie s p e r G r a m
6 0 - 7 0 % o f C a lo r ie s
T y p e is V e r y Im p o r ta n t P r o te in
4 C a lo r ie s p e r G r a m
1 0 - 1 5 % o f T o ta l C a lo r ie s
U s e P r o te in C a lc u la tio n f o r T o ta l Fat
9 C a lo r ie s p e r G r a m
L e s s th a n 3 0 %
P r e fe r a b ly 2 0 % Carbohydrates Carbohydrates spare protein so that protein can concentrate on building, repairing, and maintaining body tissues instead of being used up as an energy source.
For fat to be metabolized properly, carbohydrates must be present. If there are not enough carbohydrates, then large amounts of fat are used for energy. The body is not able to handle this large amount so quickly, so it accumulates ketone bodies, which make the body acidic. This causes a condition called ketosis. Carbohydrate is necessary for the regulation of nerve tissue and is the ONLY source of energy for the brain. Certain types of carbohydrates encourage the growth of healthy bacteria in the intestines for digestion.
Some carbohydrates are high in fiber, which helps prevent constipation and lowers the risk for certain diseases such as cancer, heart disease and diabetes. Good vs. Bad
Carbohydrates are metabolically broken down into two groups: simple (sugars) and complex (starches). Complexstarches and fiber Simple the “toses”: glucose, fructose, lactose, maltose, suctrose, etc. they are all converted to glucose to be used by body The Energizers
Choose More Often whole grain products: breads, cereals, crackers, pancakes, muffins, bagels, pasta, brown rice, oats, bulgur, vegetables and fruits, legumes, low fat dairy products Choose On Occasion refined, white flour products: breads, cereals, crackers, pancakes, muffins, bagels, pasta, white potatoes, white rice, fruit juice
Choose Seldom sweets and snacks:
pastries, donuts, candy, cake, pie, cookies, sugared cereals, soft drinks, table sugar, honey, ice cream, sherbert, fruit drinks, potato chips, pretzels, snack crackers What is Fiber?
Fiber is found only in plant foods. It is found in dried beans and peas, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. It is a type of carbohydrate that gives plants their structure. Fiber is not digested or absorbed into the body when eaten. It contains no calories. 2 Types of Fiber Soluble Fiber Sources: oats, seeds, beans, barley, peas, lentils, apples, citrus fruit, carrots, plums, and squash. Insoluble Fiber Sources: bran, whole grain products, skins of fruits and vegetables, and leafy greens. What fiber can do for you: Aids in Weight Loss Reduces Risk of Heart Disease Certain types of fiber may help lower LDL cholesterol (the bad stuff). Fiber also helps bile acids pass through as waste. Therefore the body absorbs less dietary cholesterol. Lowers High Blood Pressure Fiberrich foods are also a good source of potassium and magnesium. These two minerals are needed to help regulate blood pressure. Manages Diabetes Watersoluble fiber also helps to regulate blood sugar by delaying the emptying time of the stomach. This slows the sugar absorption after meals and reduces the amount of insulin needed. Prevents Cancer Reduces Constipation, Hemorrhoids, and Diverticulosis Proteins It helps to build, repair, and maintain body cells and tissues like your skin, muscles, organs, blood, and even bones. It also forms enzymes and hormones that enable your body to function normally. Enzymes enable chemical reactions to take place in your body. Hormones signal the appropriate enzymes to start working on what the body needs. Proteins as antibodies protect you from diseasecarrying bacteria and viruses.
Proteins help regulate the quantity of fluids in the compartments of the body to maintain your fluid balance. Protein also controls the composition of the body fluids. Proteins control your body’s acidbase balance. How many amino acids? 22 amino acids total
Complete Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt and soybeans provide all nine essential amino acids Incomplete Plant sources of protein include legumes (dried beans, peas, and lentils), nuts, and seeds. Grain products such as barley, wheat, millet, rye, as well as many vegetables have smaller amounts of protein Dangers of Too Much Protein
• Weight Gain if too many Calories
Water Loss (dehydration)
Excess Calcium excretion (osteoporosis)
Possible kidney problems from the burden
High animal protein ↑ risk of heart disease
Red meat for protein: linked with colon cancer
National Academy of Sciences recommends no more
than 2 x RDA for protein Fats It supplies essential fatty acids needed by the body. Fat carries and transports the fatsoluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Fat helps the body use protein and carbohydrates more efficiently.
Fat is a component of every cell wall.
Deposits of fat in the body serve to support and cushion vital organs, and to provide insulation. Types of Fat Saturated Saturated fats are unhealthy fats that are found in foods such as meat, milk, cheese, butter, chocolate, and coconut. These fats increase blood cholesterol and arterial blockage causing heart disease. Saturated fats should only consists of 10% of the total 30% daily calories. Types of Fat Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. These are the fats that your diet should mostly consist of. They help in cognitive development, mood/depression, immunity, and vision. 20% of your fat should come from unsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats that contain one double bond are found in peanuts, avocados, olive oil, and canola oil. Polyunsaturated fats that contain more than one double bond are found in fish, walnuts, and soybean oil ( Omega3) and whole grains, nuts, and vegetable oil (Omega6). Types of Fat Trans Fat found in baked and fried foods. Created to sustain long shelflife. Found in highly processed foods. Cholesterol LDL LDL disposes the cholesterol from the liver to where it is needed. However, with excess LDL it sometimes referred to as the “loser” of “bad” cholesterol that clogs up arteries and causes the number one killer in the U.S., cardiovascular disease. LDL causes heart attacks and strokes through arterial blockage. HDLThis is the “happy” cholesterol that vacuums up the excess LDL from blood and takes it to the liver to be excreted before it can cause damage to the cells. Exercise will increase HDL levels and lower the LDL Fuel Use During Various
Activities Minerals Regulate body processes heartbeat blood clotting maintenance of the internal pressure of body fluids nerve responses the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Give the body structurebuilding functions in skeleton and soft tissue Minerals The major minerals (or macrominerals) more that 250 milligrams daily. Calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium
Electrolytes: sodium, chloride, sulfur, and potassium. They help regulate cellular fluid and transmit nerve impulses. The trace minerals (or trace elements) are needed in much smaller quantities—less than 20 milligrams Iron, magnesium, fluoride, zinc, etc. Vitamins
Vitamins actually function primarily as catalysts, regulating chemical reactions within the body. They are also essential for the release of energy from food. Each vitamin serves one or more special functions in the body that no other nutrient can. The Vitamin Groups Fatsoluble Carried in blood stream, but must be attached to lipids/fats A, D, E, K Water soluble Not stored, carried in bloodstream and excess is excreted through urine. Bcomplex and C Water
Water is very important in regulating body temperature, carrying nutrients to the cells, and aids in digestion and elimination. A person should drink a total of 64oz. A day and this includes foods that contain water such as fruits, vegetables, soup, and sports drinks. Calorie/kcal
Unit by which energy is measured; Amount of heat energy required to raise 1 kg (1000g) of water 1o C; When the term calorie is used to express amount of energy provided by food or expended during body activities, the term kcalorie or large Calorie is actually meant. Human Metabolism Human Metabolism
(All Physical and Chemical Changes)
BMRBasal Metabolic Rate/Rest/Measure after 12hour fast RMRResting Metabolic Rate/BMR with previous activity REEResting Energy Expenditure/RMR+ Environment TEFThermic Effect of Food EMR/TEEExercise Metabolic Rate/Thermic Effect of Exercise Energy Balance Losing “weight” is easy, but...
95-99% of people who go “on” a
weight loss diet, go “off” and
regain the weight! Elements of Nutritional Quackery
Claim is too good to be true
Claim Claims to have a secret formula
Claims Makes unrealistic guarantees
Makes Claims weight loss > a pound a week
Claims Uses “Star” testimonials
Uses Claims that non-essential nutrients are
essential Serving Sizes: Eating Correctly One Serving of: Bread = 1 slice, or ½ a bagel Fruit = One Medium Fruit Vegetables = ½ cup raw or cooked Milk = 1 cup of milk, 1 ½ ounces of cheese Meat = 23 ounces (checkbook, deck of cards) Fat = No Serving Size Recommendation (butter
tip of thumb) Identifying Serving Sizes with Objects Hockey Puck ½ of a
Medium Bagel Identifying Serving Sizes
Ball 1 cup of Pasta
Fist Identifying Serving Sizes Deck of Cards Palm of Your Hand Meat Eating Healthy Is Up to You!
Make a lifetime change, not short term Nutrition and physical activity complement one another! It takes commitment, but you can do it. Don’t give up foods you love. Start slowly, gradually change the way you eat. ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/20/2012 for the course ESS 1100 taught by Professor Porter during the Spring '12 term at Texas State.
- Spring '12