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Chapter 9 - 9 Intelligence Culturally specific Cognitive...

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9 – Intelligence Culturally specific Cognitive skills Social intelligence ex. Zimbabwe “ngware” Over evolution, individuals who were able to adapt to the demand of their environments were more likely to survive and reproduce Currently, environmental demands shape what skills cultures value Problem Solving Cross-Culturally Recognize when you have a problem Define what the problem is Allocate resources for solving the problem Mentally represent the problem Set up strategies for solving the problem Evaluate the success of the solution How we define intelligence influences how we measure it Conceptual: what is intelligence? Operational: how do we measure it? Standardization Provide a way to interpret results o How well did you do compared to the others? Whom do you compare with? o Same gender, race, SES, culture? Standardized scoring of Wechsler tests o All raw scores converted to standardized scores o Normal distribution o Mean of 100 & Standard deviation of 15 Nature vs. Nurture in Intelligence Nature’s influence on IQ scores o The greater the genetic similarity between two individuals, the more similar are their IQ scores Suggests a genetic component to intelligence Nurture’s influence on IQ scores o All other things being equal, two individuals raised together will have more similar IQ scores than those raised apart Evidence that the environment shapes intelligence in important ways Genes vs. Environment Heritability: percentage of the variability in a trait across individuals that is due to genes The more individual differences are due to genetic differences, the closer the heritability is to 100% Ex. Height 85 to 95%
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Heritability of intelligence: 40-70% o Middle class populations o Heritability in families at or below the poverty line (43mil people, 15% of US population): 10-20% Misunderstandings about heritability o Refers to populations not individuals o
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