History 207 1.10.12 - History 207-1.10.11 Meet at 2306...

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History 207-1.10.11 Meet at 2306 Mason Hall for Thursday The Spread of Indian Culture to S.E. Asia (1CE-900/1000 CE) I. Sources on early SE Asia A. studying ancient history dating back to the first century—archeological, peoples who have traveled there, could be in different language II. SE Asia c. 1 C.E. A. Related to people of south China—people spread from mainland and continue to move by sea. Still large migrations of people from south China into SE Asia now. B. Material culture (1 CE)—growing rapidly. Iron, bronze used for weapons and agriculture. Wet rice grown in the main river valleys. Wet rice as opposed to dry rice. Rapid population growth. Economy still mixed. Hunting, gathering, fishing. Fishing was very important. Long distance trade both between SE Asia and with regions further away. People from SE Asia colonized Hawaii and Pacific islands. People from Indonesia colonized Madagascar. They also went to India. C. Growing internal stratification. Village chiefs who had a position higher than anyone else. Spirit chiefs (shamans), commoners, slaves. The highest levels had India beads and Chinese porcelain buried with them. D. Early development—specialized craftsman. Beginning of small cities. It’s difficult to reconstruct this, because it’s hard to see what people believe based on grave sites. Especially the men tattooed themselves for magical protection. Bilateral kinship. Inheritance from father and mother. Relatively high position for women. Some societies were matriarchal, governed by women rather than men. Shamans were generally older women or homosexual men. It was believed the older women and homosexual men could bridge two domains. E. Spirits for trees, spirits for rocks, spirits for waterfalls. Sprits for dead people, especially those who died violent deaths. Example of children who had lead poured down their throats—died violent death so their spirit could protect village? F. Powerful men who had special force field around them. They gave off lights from their heads. When they died, they were buried on hills overlooking the villages. The magic power that was concentrated on their bodies washed down and fertilize the rice fields, fructifying authority. The ancestors could protect the living even after they died. G. Early Southeast Asia had a cult of water snake, a fertility sign. Water snakes were worshiped because water and soil gave rise to rice, and the snake resembled male phallus, symbol of fertility. H. Illiterate, no written language of their own. III. Indianization Defined A. The spread of cultural motifs from India to SE Asia. We see temples and palaces based on Indian models, that look like palaces in India at the same time
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B. We see inscription on stone written in Sanskrit, the Indian language. We see Indian statues and Indian art. We see Indian ideas of kingship. India calendars, Indian religions systems take root in SE Asia. This transfer of culture from a developed civilization to illiterate ancient culture is
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History 207 1.10.12 - History 207-1.10.11 Meet at 2306...

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