psych 260 exam 1 - For each of the following topics you...

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For each of the following topics, you need to know not only the definition but also why each concept is important in organizations (e.g., implications for task productivity, decision-making, or teamwork - you will find information about the implications in the lecture/section slides as well as in the readings). You should be able to recognize each concept in concrete examples. Understanding Organizational Problems Lecture • The four levels of analysis. Be able to identify examples and to diagnose and solve organizational problems (e.g., we applied this analysis to the crash of United flight 173 example). Individual: Frostie knew gas was running low but not assertive; let Captain keep talking about circuit break Relationships: Captain didn’t tell Tower about running out of gas Group: Cockpit crew obsessed with why lights were out, never engaged about problem of fuel – too engaged Context: captain is the head Doing well in organizations = managing people and their behaviors Proximal causes and interventions: “total fuel exhaustion”, more bells and whistles, more procedures *Proximal causes are not underlying causes; interventions that address the proximal causes are superficial at best and may backfire Pfeffer and Sutton • Challenges to applying evidence-based management (why is it difficult to apply this practice?) 1. There’s too much evidence a. Simply too much information for any manager to consume (from magazines, journals, business newspapers, business books) 2. There’s not enough evidence a. Need evidence that goes beyond the subjective assessments b. Parched for reliable guidance c. Survey gave info on products such as toothpaste and cereal but no information about interventions that companies were spending millions of dollars to implement 3. The evidence doesn’t quite apply a. Managers are confronted with half-truths b. In small, privately held start-ups, options do appear to be relevant to success and less likely to produce false hype c. One hallmark of solid research is conservatism – the carefulness of the researcher to point out the specific context in which intervention A led to outcome B. 4. People are trying to mislead you a. Big problem are consultants, who are always rewarded for getting work, only sometimes rewarded for doing good work and hardly ever rewarded for evaluating whether they have actually improved things 5. You are trying to mislead you a. Example: if we expect people to be untrustworthy, we will closely monitor their behavior, which makes it impossible to develop trust
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6. The side effects outweigh the cure a. Example: holding a child back during school. School systems end practice because holding students back leaves schools crowded with older students and costs sky-rocket as more teachers and resources are needed. Flunked kids also come out worse in the end w/ higher drop out rates.
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