CMSI MIDTERM REVIEW - CMSI MIDTERM REVIEW IMPORTANT...

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CMSI MIDTERM REVIEW IMPORTANT VOCABULARY Ethics: A moral philosophy that asks basic questions about o The good life o What is better or worse o Whether there is any objective right or wrong o How we know it if there is o [p.3] Morality: o A function of moral beliefs that people have o [p.21] Argument: A set of statements (including a point, conclusion thesis and premises) that outline whether one believes an action is right or wrong, and why o Thesis: Point and Conclusion o Premise: Supporting claims with reason and evidence o [p.7] Conclusion: The summary statement at the end of an Argument that states whether the action is right or wrong (Point of argument) Moral Judgments/Valuations: o Place a value, negative or positive, on some action or practice based on norms or standards of good and bad o Normative judgments because they rely on the norms o [p.5] Knowledge: o Fact o Verifiable o Proof o Universal o Real o Very different from faith o Actual reality o Confidence: 100% o Evidence: 100% (99%) Belief: o Individual
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o Between knowledge and faith o Perspective o Basics for faith o In the middle of Actual reality and Personal reality o Confidence: 51-99% (Probably) o Evidence: 51-99% (Probably) Faith: o Doesn’t require proof o Individual o Inner person o Gives hope o Personal reality o Confidence: 110% o Evidence: Don’t need any, or 0% Descriptive Ethics: o Psychological o About factual matters (areas and disciplines that are in this sense descriptive) o “The way things are”, “How it is” o Scientific (based on evidence) o [p.5-6] Normative Ethics: o Ethical o Evaluative and grounds its judgments in certain norms or values o “The way things ought to be”, “How it should be” o Judging actions to a norm o Theoretical Ethics is a type of Normative Ethics o [p.5] Principle of Utility: o The right action is the one that brings about the most good for the most people o The morally good/better/best alternative is that which produces the greatest or (greater) net utility, where utility is defined in terms of happiness or pleasure. o We ought to do that which produces the greatest amount of happiness or pleasure for the greatest numbers of people o [p.54] Metaethics o Question about the nature of ethics o Seeks to understand the meaning of ethical terms and judgement o [p.2]
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Consequentialist: o The results of actions matter morally o Moral judgments on consequences o [p.10] Divine Command Theory: o Deontological (Motive, Act) o What to evaluate to make ethical judgments: Ethical Principles and Standard #11: An action is good/right/best because one believes that is the way God wants it to be The right or wrong way of life is defined by what God says o Pros/Cons: Pros: Very defined More or less objective Cons: Violent Go to extremes Justified for unjust actions Kant’s Moral Theory: o Deontological (Motive, Act) o What to evaluate to make ethical judgments:
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CMSI MIDTERM REVIEW - CMSI MIDTERM REVIEW IMPORTANT...

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