SI TEST2 - SI TEST2 RIBOSOMES Ribosome are made in the...

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SI TEST2 RIBOSOMES Ribosome are made in the nucleolus of the nucleus Ribosomes translate genetic information from genes on DNA strand into proteins. These proteins are either made for the cell itself or to be excreted for other cell use Some ribosomes are in the cytoplasm to make proteins for the surrounding areas like an organelle of the cell. While others are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum These proteins have signal sequences that tell it where to go in the cell ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) - Made of phospholipid bilayers - Attached ribosomes make proteins that enter into holes called translocons - Inside the lumen, proteins are formed into 3-D tertiary forms and they are excreted into other parts of the cell or outside of the cell GLYCOSOLIZATION - This occurs in the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). - An example of this is digestive enzymes called hydrolytic enzymes that are made in the (RER) of pancreatic cells - This process can make digestive enzymes and many of the glycoproteins. Glycoproteins are part sugar and protein SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM - SER has no ribosomes attached - Manufacture phospholipids - Lipid and steroid metabolism - Dotoxication center - Adds hydroxyl groups to the unwanted chemicals to make it water soluble GOLGI BODY - RER send transport vesicles filled with modified proteins to the golgi body. The hollow stacks of the golgi apparatus are called cisternae (cisterna for singular) - This cis face is where the transport vesicles enter while the trans face is where the even more modified proteins exit FUNCTIONS OF THE GOLGI BODY - Can add sugars to the proteins - Processing, sorting, modification, and distribution of the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Glycolipids are manufactured too - The proteins have a molecular zip code that instructs the golgi body where the proteins are sent
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LYSOSOMES - Proteins are sent to these lysosomes. These proteins are acid hydrolases - Lysosomes are created by the golgi body and they stay in the cytoplasm - They contain proteases that break down proteins - They can also break down carbohydrates, DNA, and lipids - White blood cells use lysosomes during phagocytosis to kill bacteria and other pathogens - Phagocytosis traps them in food vacuoles. Primary lysosomes are inactive until they fuse with the food vacuoles thus becoming secondary lysosomes - Then the secondary lysosomes contain proton pumps that increase the pH exponentially to assist in breaking down the food or pathogens - Broken down molecules are then absorbed by the cell METABOLIC TURNOVER OR AUTOPHAGY - Worn out organelles are digested by the lysosomes and then the digested molecules are used to create new components such as new organelles - Lysosomes form glucose from animal starch to get cell energy STORAGE DISEASES - DNA information molecules read by ribosomes polypeptides and then functional proteins - Storage disease are genetic problems involving lysosomes - Pompe’s disease alpha glucosidase (GAA) is not made to breakdown glucose for
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course BIOL 1020 taught by Professor Dute during the Fall '06 term at Auburn University.

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SI TEST2 - SI TEST2 RIBOSOMES Ribosome are made in the...

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