Chapter1_Lect2

Chapter1_Lect2 - Eeng360 Eeng360 Chapter 1 Chapter 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Eeng360 Eeng360 Chapter 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves Information Measure Channel Capacity and Ideal Communication Systems Huseyin Bilgekul Eeng360 Communication Systems I Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Eastern Mediterranean University Eeng360 Eeng360 Frequency Bands Frequency Bands Regulations specify, modulation type, bandwidth, power, type of information and etc. that a user can transmit over designed frequency bands. Frequency assignments and technical standards are set internationally by International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Each nation of ITU retains sovregnity over spectral usage and standards adopted in its territory. Each nation is expected to abide by the overall frequency plan adopted by ITU. Eeng360 Eeng360 Eeng360 Eeng360 Eeng360 Eeng360 Eeng360 Eeng360 Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves used in wireless channels are highly dependent on the frequency. Based on carrier frequency EM wave propagations can be classified as: • GROUND-WAVE PROPAGATION • SKY-WAVE PROPAGATION • Line of Sight (LOS) PROPAGATION Eeng360 Eeng360 Ionized Regions Above Earth. Ionized Regions Above Earth. • Ionization of air is caused by UV rays from the sun. • Ionized air shows different properties at different levels (Density and pressure). • Speed of the wave differs with the changing properties. • Dominant regions are named as D, E, F 1 and F 2 . Eeng360 Eeng360 GROUND-WAVE PROPAGATION GROUND-WAVE PROPAGATION Dominant mode of propagation for frequencies below 2 MHz....
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Chapter1_Lect2 - Eeng360 Eeng360 Chapter 1 Chapter 1...

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