Lec21-Apr05 - 4/5/11 Quiz QuesKon #1 Astro 109...

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Unformatted text preview: 4/5/11 Quiz QuesKon #1 Astro 109 Lecture 21: Geology on Earth Based on the ages of rocks and the numbers of craters, we say that Earth’s surface is much younger than the Moon’s. Why is that so? A.  Earth has been hit by many fewer meteorites than the Moon. B.  Earth formed later than the Moon. C.  Earth has a stronger magneKc field than the Moon. D.  Earth’s surface is remade more frequently than the Moon’s. E.  Earth has a greenhouse effect while the Moon does not. April 5 Apr. 5 Geological processes Quiz QuesKon #2 There are 4 basic processes that affect planetary surfaces. Which of the following is not one? A.  B.  C.  D.  E.  erosion volcanism precession impact cratering tectonics Volcanism Cratering Erosion Tectonics Apr. 5 Apr. 5 Impact craters Impact cratering •  More common when the solar system was young •  Crater is about 10 Kmes wider than the impactor Meteor Crater (Arizona) Apr. 5 •  Small craters are more common than large ones Tycho Crater (Moon) Apr. 5 1 4/5/11 Volcanism •  Occurs when molten rock (magma) finds a path to the surface Erosion •  Molten rock is called lava once it reaches the surface wind ice Apr. 5 Apr. 5 water Discussion QuesKon Lava and volcanoes What is the best way to study the internal structure of Earth? runny lava  ­ ­> flat plains thicker lava  ­ ­> broad shield volcanoes thickest lava  ­ ­> steep stratovolcanoes Apr. 5 A.  By drilling deep holes into the mantle and core. B.  By making theoreKcal calculaKons of the properKes of gases and liquids. C.  By analyzing how seismic waves from earthquakes propagate through the Earth. D.  By comparing Earth to other planets in the solar system. E.  By analyzing the gases and lava emi^ed by volcanoes. Apr. 5 Seismic waves Earthquakes Apr. 5 Wikipedia Apr. 5 2 4/5/11 Discussion QuesKon What generated Earth’s interior heat? A.  B.  C.  D.  E.  Apr. 5 volcanoes impacts as Earth was forming radioacKvity both B and C all three A, B, and C Apr. 5 Energy sources Apr. 5 Apr. 5 Discussion QuesKon Cooling mechanisms How does an object’s size affect its rate of cooling? A.  A larger object cools more slowly than a smaller object. B.  A larger object cools more quickly than a smaller object. C.  Size has no effect on an object’s rate of cooling. Potato vs. pea! Apr. 5 Apr. 5 3 4/5/11 Cooling Cooling rate •  Heat content depends on volume: 43 πR 3 •  RadiaKve cooling depends on surface area: V= A = 4π R2 •  Cooling rate depends on surface area divided by volume: Potato vs. pea! A 4π R2 3 = = V (4/3)π R3 R Apr. 5 Apr. 5 Earthquakes ConKnental plates in moKon Apr. 5 Wikipedia Apr. 5 ConvecKon and plate tectonics ConKnental drid Apr. 5 h^p://www.mapsharing.org/MS ­maps/map ­pages ­worldmap/1 ­conKnental ­map ­pangea ­drid.html Can be measured with GPS Apr. 5 4 4/5/11 Discussion QuesKon ConvecKon and plate tectonics Which of the following is not a correct statement of ideas from the theory of plate tectonics? A.  B.  C.  D.  E.  Apr. 5 Earth’s crust is broken into plates. Most earthquakes occur at plate boundaries. Plates are destroyed at subducKon zones. All volcanic acKvity occurs at subducKon zones. Plates are created at mid ­ocean ridges. Apr. 5 h^p://www.sciencephoto.com/images/download_lo_res.html?id=670019079 Mid ­AtlanKc Ridge in Iceland Mid ­AtlanKc Ridge Apr. 5 Apr. 5 Red Sea: Rid valley Apr. 5 Himalayas Apr. 5 5 4/5/11 FormaKon of the Himalayas h^p://www.cnr.vt.edu/boyer/geog1014/TOPICS/103Topo/landforms.html Apr. 5 h^p://www.geology.um.maine.edu/geodynamics/AnalogWebsite/UndergradProjects2006/Chase/files/typecase.html Apr. 5 Hawaii Volcanic chains •  plate slides over hot spot  ­ ­> chain of volcanoes Samoa Apr. 5 h^p://www.fathom.com/feature/122477/index.html Apr. 5 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course ASTRO 109750 taught by Professor Keeting during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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