Lec20-Apr01 - Quiz Ques8on#1 List the terrestrial...

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Unformatted text preview: 4/1/11 Quiz Ques8on #1 List the terrestrial planets in order from weakest to strongest greenhouse effect. Astro 109 Lecture 20: Atmospheres – Forma8on and Evolu8on, Mo8on April 1 A.  B.  C.  D.  E.  Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus Mercury, Mars, Earth, Venus Mercury, Mars, Venus, Earth Venus, Mars, Earth, Mercury Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars Apr. 1 Quiz Ques8on #2 Most of the CO2 outgassed from Earth’s interior A.  B.  C.  D.  E.  was destroyed by solar radia8on. was incorporated into rocks. has escaped into space. is found in today’s atmosphere. is found in today’s oceans. Apr. 1 Key Concepts •  Terrestrial planet atmospheres were similar to start, but grew apart •  Greenhouse effect and atmospheric evolu8on •  Convec8on and coriolis effect determine how air moves Apr. 1 Thought Ques8on Atmospheric composi8ons The evolu8on of Earth’s atmosphere was greatly affected by the forma8on of oceans. Which of the following was not an important consequence of ocean forma8on? A.  B.  C.  D.  E.  Apr. 1 Venus Earth Nitrogen (N2) 3.5% 78.08% 2.7% Oxygen (O2) almost zero 20.95% almost zero Carbon dioxide (CO2) 96.5% 0.035% 95.3% Water vapor (H2O) Nitrogen was released in large quan88es. Most CO2 was removed from the atmosphere. Most water vapor was removed from the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect was reined in. Aqua8c plants produced free oxygen. 0.003% 1% 0.03% almost zero almost zero 2% Other gases Mars Apr. 1 1 4/1/11 Planet temperatures (average) Planet Predicted T (K) Actual T (K) Mercury 433 452 Venus 231 726 Earth 254 281 Mars 210 Earth … ozone absorbs UV from Sun hep://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/special/planets.htm normal atmospheric pressure: 14.7 psi Apr. 1 Apr. 1 Discussion Ques8on Venus Approximately what is the effec8ve weight of air on the top of the drum? A.  B.  C.  D.  E.  true acid rain (sulfuric acid) – but it evaporates before reaching the surface 6 pounds 15 pounds 60 pounds 600 pounds 6000 pounds “virga” on Earth Apr. 1 Apr. 1 Mamers Vallis Mars Mars: Wet past? no liquid – only ice (water and CO2) Apr. 1 Ares Vallis Ganges Chasma Apr. 1 Hephaestus Fossae Mars Express, ESA / DLR / FU Berlin Mars Odyssey, NASA / JPL / Arizona State University 2 4/1/11 Stromboli (Wikipedia) outgassing from volcanoes Discussion Ques8on Evidence that Mars used to have liquid water implies that the Mar8an atmosphere was A.  B.  C.  D.  E.  thicker and warmer in the past than today. thinner and colder in the past than today. composed mostly of methane and ammonia in the past. composed mostly of nitrogen and oxygen in the past. captured from the solar nebula. impacts by comets Where do atmospheres come from? Apr. 1 Apr. 1 Venus Atmospheric evolu8on Mars •  Venus, Earth, and Mars probably began with similar atmospheres. What happened? •  CO2 can be trapped in water and rocks (carbonates) – moderates greenhouse effect •  (On Earth, most of the CO2 is in the crust) •  CO2 can be recycled by volcanoes Apr. 1 Apr. 1 Modern carbon cycle Atmospheric evolu8on •  Earth: most CO2 trapped in oceans and carbonate rocks; some CO2 released by volcanoes  ­ ­> moderate greenhouse effect •  Venus: began similar to Earth, but rising temperatures  ­ ­> water evaporated  ­ ­> more warming  ­ ­> CO2 in rocks “baked out” runaway greenhouse effect •  Mars: smaller/cooler planet  ­ ­> reduced volcanism and magne8c field  ­ ­> CO2 trapped or lost  ­ ­> more cooling  ­ ­> more condensa8on  ­ ­> more CO2 trapped  ­ ­> thin CO2 atmosphere Apr. 1 hep://globecarboncycle.unh.edu/CarbonCycleAc8vi8es.shtml Apr. 1 runaway icehouse effect 3 4/1/11 Discussion Ques8on Life! Most of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere today came from A.  B.  C.  D.  E.  •  photosynthesis releases oxygen the breakup of the ozone layer photosynthesis by plants spliqng of CO2 molecules by solar radia8on outgassing from volcanoes mel8ng glaciers •  oxygen is very reac8ve, but lots of life  ­ ­> lots of O2 Venus Earth 3.5% 78.08% 2.7% Oxygen (O2) almost zero 20.95% almost zero Carbon dioxide (CO2) 96.5% 0.035% 95.3% Water vapor (H2O) Apr. 1 •  21% O2 represents balance between photosynthesis and respira8on Mars Nitrogen (N2) 0.003% 1% 0.03% almost zero almost zero 2% Other gases Apr. 1 Prevailing winds Convec8on Wikipedia Apr. 1 Apr. 1 Coriolis effect Apr. 1 Apr. 1 4 4/1/11 Hurricanes Coriolis effect and wind Wikipedia Apr. 1 Apr. 1 Hurricanes in the hemispheres Northern hemisphere Apr. 1 Wikipedia Apr. 1 Prevailing winds Apr. 1 Southern hemisphere Coriolis effect and prevailing winds Apr. 1 5 4/1/11 Discussion Ques8on Venus rotates much slower than Earth. So compared with Earth, Venus has A.  B.  C.  D.  E.  a stronger Coriolis effect and more atmospheric bands. a stronger Coriolis effect and fewer atmospheric bands. a weaker Coriolis effect and more atmospheric bands. a weaker Coriolis effect and fewer atmospheric bands. the same Coriolis effect and number of atmospheric bands. Apr. 1 Apr. 1 hep://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap970507.html Wikipedia, “Atmosphere of Jupiter” Apr. 1 Wikipedia, “Atmosphere of Jupiter” Apr. 1 Discussion Ques8on The evolu8on of Earth’s atmosphere was greatly affected by the forma8on of oceans. Which of the following was not an important consequence of ocean forma8on? A.  B.  C.  D.  E.  Apr. 1 Wikipedia, “Atmosphere of Jupiter” Nitrogen was released in large quan88es. Most CO2 was removed from the atmosphere. Most water vapor was removed from the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect was reined in. Aqua8c plants produced free oxygen. Apr. 1 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course ASTRO 109750 taught by Professor Keeting during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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