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13402928-AP-Biology-Chapters-FortyOne-Thru-FortyFive-Animals-Guide

13402928-AP-Biology-Chapters-FortyOne-Thru-FortyFive-Animals-Guide

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1 http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ AP Biology Animal Function Review This guide will be covering animal structure and function by reviewing : Major types of tissues Digestion Circulation Respiration Defenses of the Body Homeostasis/Excretion Endocrine System MAJOR TYPES OF ANIMAL TISSUE Tissues Tissues Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function. There are four main categories: epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, and muscle tissue. Epithelial tissue Epithelial tissue Epithelial tissue covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body. Tightly packed cells form a barrier protecting against mechanical injury, invasive microorganisms, and fluid loss. The cells at the base of the epithelium are attached to a basement membrane basement membrane basement membrane, a mat of extracellular matrix. A simple epithelium simple epithelium simple epithelium has a single layer of cells, while a stratified epithelium stratified epithelium stratified epithelium has multiple layers of cells. The shape of the cells at the surface may be cuboidal cuboidal cuboidal (cubes), columnar columnar columnar (bricks), or squamous squamous squamous (floor tiles). Glandular epithelia Glandular epithelia Glandular epithelia absorb or secrete chemical solutions. The glandular epithelia lining the lumen of the digestive and respiratory tracts form a mucous membrane mucous membrane mucous membrane by secreting mucus to lubricate the surface and keep it moist. Connective tissue functions to bind and support other tissues. They have a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix. Collagenous fibers Collagenous fibers are made of collagen – they are nonelastic and do not tear easily when pulled lengthwise. Elastic fibers Elastic fibers are long threads made of elastin, which provides a rubbery quality. Reticular fibers Reticular fibers, consisting of collagen, are very thin and branched to form a tightly woven fabric. There are two main types of connective tissues found in vertebrates: Loose connective tissue Loose connective tissue is the most widespread connective tissue. It binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place. It consists of all three fiber types. Fibroblasts Fibroblasts are cells that secrete the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers and Macrophages acrophages acrophages are amoeboid cells that engulf bacteria and debris. These two types of cells predominate in the mesh of loose connective tissue. Adipose tissue Adipose tissue is a specialized form of loose connective tissue that stores fat in adipose cells. Fibrous connective tissue Fibrous connective tissue Fibrous connective tissue is dense and organized into parallel bundles. They are found in tendons tendons tendons and ligaments ligaments ligaments.
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