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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter One: Introduction to Geography (Text from Introduction to Geography: People, Places, and Environment by Berman and Renwick Introduction to Geography (Chapter One) What is Geography? Geography Geography Geography Geography is the study of the interaction of all physical and human phenomena at individual places and of how interactions among places form patterns and organize space. Physical geography Physical geography Physical geography Physical geography studies the characteristics of the physical environment. Human geography Human geography Human geography Human geography studies human groups and their activities, such as language, industry, and the building of cities. Cultural geography Cultural geography Cultural geography Cultural geography, a subfield of human geography, focuses specifically on the role of human cultures. Cartography Cartography Cartography Cartography (map making) and its computerized extension to geographic information systems geographic information systems geographic information systems geographic information systems (GIS GIS GIS GIS) provide tools that help both physical and human geographers store, display, and analyze geographic data. Bernhard Varen, German professor during the 17 th century, wrote General Geography . He described two different approaches to geography: special geography and general geography . Special geography describes and analyzes places in terms of categories such as local population, customs, politics, economy, and religionthis is now called regional geography regional geography regional geography regional geography. General geography is now referred to as topical topical topical topical or systematic geography systematic geography systematic geography systematic geography and examines topics of universal application or occurrence. Contemporary Approaches in Geography Area Analysis Site Site Site Site describes the exact location of a place, and can be described either in terms of latitude and longitude or in terms of the places characteristics. The location of a place relative to other places is called its situation situation situation situation. Relative location Relative location Relative location Relative location influences accessibility. Improvements in transportation and communication links have shrunk the Earth enough for many activities to expand their organization worldwide in globalization globalization globalization globalization. Earth is divided into regions regions regions regions, areas defined by one or more distinctive characteristics or features. The three kinds of regions are: c Formal region Formal region Formal region Formal region: exhibits essential uniformity in one or more physical or cultural features c Functional region: Functional region: Functional region: Functional region: defined by interactions among places, such as trade or communication c Vernacular regio Vernacular regio Vernacular regio Vernacular region: n: n: n: defined by widespread popular perception of their existence by people...
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- Spring '08