19685374-IBWG-Introduction-to-World-Geography-Notes -...

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Unformatted text preview: http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ IB World Geography August 27, 2009 Introduction to World Geography I. How do geographers address where things are? Spatial Analysis Geography by its nature is a spatial science. Geographers therefore study space in order to locate the distribution of people and objects Geographers ask two main questions, “where and “why Spatial objects. where” why.” where why analysis is concerned with analyzing regularities achieved through interaction Regularities result in a interaction. distinctive distribution of a feature. Distribution has three properties: 1. 2. 3. D ensity Density Concentration C oncentration P attern Pattern Interaction results from the diffusion of a feature. Diffusion occurs in three main ways: 1. Relocation diffusion bodily movement. R elocation diffusion: 2. Expansion diffusion through snowballing Expansion diffusion: o Hierarchical diffusion: from a node o Contagious diffusion: widespread 3. Stimulus diffusion underlying principles S timulus diffusion: Maps most immediately distinguish geography from other disciplines. Locating where particular features and activities occur on the Earth’s surface is fundamental to geography. II. Why is each point on Earth unique? Location Four ways of indicating location: 1. 2. 3. 4. Place P lac Place names: toponym S ite: Site: physical characteristics S ituation: Situation: relative location Mathematical: Mathematical: geographic grid Longitude plays an important role in calculating time. There is a widespread misunderstanding of the purpose of the International Date Line Line. Once geographers learn where a particular feature or activity is located they ask the next question of why it why is there. The concepts of region and culture reveal why each place is in some way unique. Region provides another way geographers can demonstrate the uniqueness of a place. Geographers divide the world, or a portion of the world, into regions. What makes a particular location unique? Distinguishing features of regions can include language type, dominant economic activity, or political unit. Geographers analyze regions (regional analysis to integrate geographic features of an area. Three types of regions are regional analysis) identified: 1. Formal (or uniform or homogeneous), such as language or climate Formal 2. Functional (or nodal), such as a newspaper circulation Functional http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ IB World Geography August 27, 2009 Introduction to World Geography 3. Vernacular (or perceptual), such as the “South” Vernacular How do we define culture It is the way of life for a specific people in a specific place. Describe your culture. culture? What are the major components of culture? Do not confuse the terms culture, ethnicity, and nationality. The news media often use these terms inappropriately and interchangeably. What is the relationship between culture and the national environment? Different cultural groups modify the natural environment in distinctive ways to produce unique cultural landscapes Compare and contrast the United States, for instance, with a landscapes capes. developing country. III. Why are different places similar? Globalization Geographers work at all scales, from the global to the local. The scale of a map is the relation of a feature’s size on a map to its actual size on Earth’s surface. Think about ways events at a global scale influence the local scale. Do any local events or actions have implications at the global scale? A tension has developed between two important themes—globalization and local diversity Places in different parts of the world are globalization diversity. becoming increasingly similar with respect to cultural preferences, economic activities, and environmental management. At the same time, in the face of increasingly uniform patterns, people in various parts of the world are trying to maintain unique (or at least unusual) local cultures, economic activities, and physical environment. In as much as places are unique, they also share similarities. While studying different places, geographers ask why two regions can display similar characteristics. To answer this why question, geographers use the concepts of spatial interaction and diffusion. Interaction. Spatial Interaction Interdependence exists among places based upon the degree of spatial interaction. Spatial interaction is established through the movement of people ideas and objects between regions people, ideas, regions. Discuss spatial interactions that take place at a variety of different scales including local, state or regional, national, and global. Think about the impact that modern communication has on the degree of interaction between two places. Diffusion. people, ideas, places. Diffusion Diffusion involves the movement of people ideas and information between places Regions can possess similarities based upon characteristics that spread from one place to another over time. A hearth is an area where an innovation originates and then typically diffuses to another region. How do political ideas, inventions, and agricultural practices diffuse from one place to another? What about the influence of music and fashion? There are two basic types of diffusion: • • R elocation Relocation diffusion – a catalyst takes something out of the hearth to share with others Expansion Expansion diffusion – the spread of the feature or idea through a snowball process - Hierarchical diffusion - Contagious diffusion - Stimulus diffusion http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ IB World Geography August 27, 2009 Introduction to World Geography ...
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