19709463-Vocabulary-Introduction-to-Geography-Chapter-One-IB-Geo

19709463-Vocabulary-Introduction-to-Geography-Chapter-One-IB-Geo

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter One: Introduction to Geography (Text from Introduction to Geography: People, Places, and Environment by Berman and Renwick Introduction to Geography (Chapter One) - Vocabulary 1 . a tmosphere: 1. atmosphere: a thin layer of gases surrounding Earth to an altitude of less than 480 km (300 mi) 2 . biosphere: 2. biosphere: all living organisms on Earth cartogram: 3. cartogram: a map-like image designed to convey the magnitude of something rather than exact spatial locations cartography: 4. cartography: mapmaking concentration: 5. concentration: the distribution of a phenomenon within a given area conformal 6. conformal map: a map that distorts size but preserves shape contiguous 7. contiguous diffusion: diffusion that occurs from one place directly to a neighboring place 8. cultural geography: the study of the geography of human cultures cultural geography: cultural 9. cultural landscape: a landscape that reveals the many ways people modify their local environment culture: 10. culture: a bundle of attributes of shared behavior or belief. These may include virtually anything about the way a people lives d ensity: 11. density: the frequency of occurrence of a phenomenon in relation to its geographic area d iffusion: 12. diffusion: the process of an item or feature spreading through time d istance: 13. distance: the extent of space between two objects or places; it can be measured absolutely, in terms of miles or kilometers, or in terms of other units, such as time or cost to cross d istance 14. distance decay: the diminution of the presence or impact of any cultural attribute away from its hearth area d istribution: 15. distribution: the position, placement, or arrangement of a phenomena e cology: 16. ecology: the scientific study of ecosystems 17. ecosystem: an interrelated collection of plants and animals and the physical environment with e cosystem: which they interact equale qual map: 18. equal- area map a map projection that preserves size but distorts shape equator: e quator 19. equator Earth’s imaginary midline everywhere equidistant between the poles f ormal region: 20. formal region a region defined by essential uniformity in one or more physical or cultural features f riction distance: 21. friction of distance the effort, time, or cost necessary to move or transport items f unctional region: 22. functional region a region defined by interaction among places, such as trade and communication g eographic (GIS): 23. geographic information systems (GIS) computer hardware and software systems used to organize, store, analyze, and display geographic information geography: g eography 24. geography the study of the interaction of all physical and human phenomena at individual places and of how interactions among places form patterns and organize space 25. global positioning system (GPS): a navigational tool consisting of a fleet of satellites orbiting g lobal (GPS) Earth, broadcasting digital codes, and a portable receiver that can “hear” those codes and determine its location globalization: g lobalization 26. globalization increased interaction among people and societies at the global scale, including both economic and cultural phenomena 2 Chapter One: Introduction to Geography (Text from Introduction to Geography: People, Places, and Environment by Berman and Renwick Introduction to Geography (Chapter One) - Vocabulary 2 7. Greenwich (GMT): 27. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) the time at the prime meridian or 0° longitude at Greenwich, England hearth: h earth 28. hearth the place where a distinctive culture originated h ierarchical diffusion: 29. hierarchical diffusion diffusion that occurs downward or upward in a hierarchy of organization; when mapped, it shows up as a network of spots h uman geography: 30. human geography the study of the geography of human groups and activities hydrosphere: h ydrosphere 31. hydrosphere the water realm of Earth’s surface, including the oceans, surface waters on land (lakes, streams, rivers), groundwater in soil and rock, water vapor in the atmosphere, and ice in glaciers International line: 32. International Date line imaginary line on Earth’s surface where, by international agreement, travelers traveling eastward subtract one calendar day, and travelers traveling westward add one calendar day. The line generally follows the 180° meridian, but it deviates for political and economic convenience large-scale large 33. large scale map: map that shows a given area in a large space latitude latitude: 34. la titude the location of a place measured as an angular distance north and south of the equator lithosphere: lithosphere 35. lithosphere the solid Earth, composed of rocks and sediments overlying them longitude: longitude 36. longitude the location of a place measured as angular distance east and west from the prime meridian map: map 37. map a two-dimensional (flat) representation of some portion of Earth’s surface meridians: meridians 38. meridians imaginary lines extending from pole to pole and crossing all parallels at right angles model: model 39. model an idealized, simplified representation of reality 40. natural landscape: a landscape without evidence of human activity n atural landscape na 41. para l le ls: lines connecting all points of the same latitude 42. pat tern: the arrangement of objects within an area 43. phy sica l ge og raph y: the study of the characteristics of the physical environment 44. prime me rid ia n: the meridian passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, from which longitude is measured 45. proj ect i on: a method of portraying Earth or any portion of it on a flat map region: region 46. region a territory that exhibits a certain uniformity 47. re g ion a l ge ogra phy: an inventory analysis of all characteristics of any individual place 48. re lat ive l ocat ion: the location of a place relative to other places diffusion: 49. re locat ion diffusion diffusion from one widely separated point to another 50. re mot e sen sing: the acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from high-flying aircraft 51. sca le: a quantitative statement of the relative sizes of an object on a map and in reality 52. sit e: the characteristics of the absolute location of a place 53. sit ua t ion: the characteristics of the relative location of a place 54. sma ll-scale map: a map that shows a given area in a very small place 55. sy ste m: an interdependent group of itmes that interact in a regular way to form a unified whole 3 Chapter One: Introduction to Geography (Text from Introduction to Geography: People, Places, and Environment by Berman and Renwick Introduction to Geography (Chapter One) - Vocabulary 56. 56. sy ste mat i c ge og ra ph y: the study of universal laws or principles that apply to all places; topics may be as diverse as the geography of soils (pedology), of life forms (biogeography), of politics (political geography), of economic activities (economic geography), and of cities (urban geography) 57. t opi ca l g eog ra ph y : the study of universal laws or principles that apply to all places; topics may be as diverse as the geography of soils (pedology), of life forms (biogeography), of politics (political geography), of economic activities (economic geography), and of cities (urban geography) 58. t opog ra ph y : surface relief 59. v e rna cul ar re gi on: a region defined by widespread popular conception of its existence ...
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