20891404-IBWG-Global-Food-Supplies-Notes -...

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Unformatted text preview: http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ February 4, 2009 5th Period APHG Global Food Supplies The global food supply is more than able to keep up with global demand. Production is not as much of a problem as distributing the food is. There are great disparities in the maps of food production and supplies. Some countries produce substantial surpluses of food, while others lack the ability or desire to feed their populations a nutritious diet Problems arise as the results of interaction among environmental, diet. political, technological, political and economic factors. Since Malthus published his theory, the global population has risen from 1 billion to over 6 billion Mass billion. undernourished. starvation on a global scale has not occurred. There are as many overweight as there are undernourished In fact, per capita food supplies have increased more rapidly than population growth. Due to continued improvements of the late 17th century’s Scientific Revolution of Agriculture, we are still experiencing Agriculture tremendous surpluses in our food supply. What has changed? Areas that were non -arable during Malthus’ time are now open for food production nonproduction. Because of new irrigation practices, 2.2 billion acres have been converted to croplands since the mid-20th century. Another factor is many crops have been transplanted to new areas where they have thrived; in some cases better than their areas of origin. The 6 Hearths of Agriculture 1 1.. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Wheat Wheat and Barley – Middle East, 10,000 years ago C orn Corn and Beans – Mexico, 9,000 years ago R ice, Rice, China – 8,000 years ago P otatoes Potatoes – South America, 7,000 years ago S unflowers Sunflowers – Native Americans, 5,000 years ago * Taro 7– *Taro and Bananas – New Guinea, 7 –10,000 years ago Many food yields have been increased due to genetic engineering which is the manipulation of a species’ engineering, genetic material. There are two main techniques: 1. Selective Breeding: This has been carried on for millennia. It is a process by which the farmer S elective Breeding controls the characteristics through reproduction pollination growth rate nutrition etc. reproduction, pollination, rate, nutrition, 2. Recombinant DNA The process of splicing DNA of two organisms to produce a new organism with R ecombinant DNA: ‘recombined’ DNA. The scientists can then introduce this new DNA strand into another organism, permanently changing the genetic makeup of that organism and all its descendants (genetically food). modified food) Due to migrations especially during the European colonial period (The Columbian Exchange System many migrations, System), The foods were distributed throughout the world. Numerous modern cultures identify their present traits with regional/local foods that were actually transported from other cultures Ex: Russia-potatoes, U.S.-corn, Italycultures. tomatoes, etc. Improvements in transportation and technology have led to regional specialization which leads to an specialization, increase in production. Inventions such as railroads and refrigeration have led to increased efficiency and http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ February 4, 2009 5th Period APHG Global Food Supplies safety. safety safety Food can be stored for longer periods of time, and can be moved from surplus to deficit areas, which leads to fewer people dying from famine. Even new techniques of storage, such as silos, freeze-drying, storage antiseptic packaging, and vacuum sealing have led to increased production. The Green Revolution Around 1950 an intensive effort was launched by a few governments and private organizations to develop 1950, new grain varieties for developing countries. Rice and wheat were the specific crops chosen to be grown to meet the needs of malnourished populations. These efforts have produced new crops that are more disease, resistant to pests and disease and reach maturity much faster than normal. These techniques allow for two, or even three, crops per year. An example of their success is India, where 1.5 million people died from famine in 1943. By 1977, India became a net grain exporter, even though the population doubled in that time. Along with scientific research of crops, par allel research has been directed to livestock A global parallel livestock. breeding, feed, distribution system, improved breeding healthier feed and genetic engineering has led to a tremendous increase in livestock numbers. The livestock that is currently being produced is hardier and gives a greater yield. yield An example is that in 1950, the average U.S. dairy cow gave 618 gallons of milk per year. By 2000, the output had more than tripled to 2,114 gallons. In 1969, the average U.S. stock pig produced 6.7 piglets per year. By 2000, the average was 16. Machines Machines and equipment have played a major role in our increased production. New farm machines have labor, efficient. reduced the need for farm labor and the processes of planting and harvesting are much more efficient Items such as heaters are used to save a large portion of Florida’s citrus crops every year. Across the globe, humans have undertaken large -scale irrigation projects to move water from areas of plenty to areas that largecould have never dreamed of agriculture during Malthus’ time. ...
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