23246513-IBWG-Natural-Resources-Notes

23246513-IBWG-Natural-Resources-Notes -...

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Unformatted text preview: http://guidesbyjulie.blogspot.com/ IB World Geography Natural Resources What is a natural resource? Anything created with natural processes that people use and value value. Examples include plants, animals, coal, water, air, land, metals, sunlight, and wilderness. What is the wilderness importance of natural resources to geographers? They are the specific elements of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, interact. biosphere, hydrosphere , and lithosphere in which people interact Characteristics of Resources 1 Cultural people’ 1.. Cultural values influence people ’s decisions about a commodity Technology 2. Technology must be high enough to utilize the resource Economic 3. Economic systems affect whether a resource is affordable and accessible Think of how the term swamps evolved into the term wetlands As a consequence of cultural change, wetlands. wetlands are now a valued land resource protected by law. Natural resources acquire a monetary value through exchange in a marketplace. The rule of supply and demand determines the resource’s value to the market, and limits the production allocation and consumption of the resource. production allocation, tion, What is an externality? A hidden cost, due to an exchange of the commodity outside the marketplace, commodity’ use. often as a byproduct of the commodity ’s use Example: Exhaust from a power plant creates an undesirable pollutant that nearby residents experience. If the residents were paid for their experiences, maybe the pollutants from the plant would decrease. Substitutability Many Many natural resources are valued for specific properties (coal for heat when burned, wood for strength and beauty, fish as protein, clean water for health). In many cases, several substances may serve the same purpose, so if one is scarce or expensive, another can be substituted substituted. Example: Copper wire can be substituted for aluminum wire. Many resources have no substitute, and their aluminum uniqueness only adds to the essence of their value. Nonrenewable resources: those that form so slowly that they cannot be replaced when used used. Examples: coal, oil, gas, lead, uranium, etc. Renewable resources: those replaced continually, at least within a human lifespan lifespan. Even a renewable resource can be de pleted or used to a point where it can no longer be economically used. depleted pleted, ...
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