SM_chapter39

SM_chapter39 - 39 Relativity Note: In chapters 39, 40, and...

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39 Relativity CHAPTER OUTLINE 39.1 The Principle of Galilean Relativity 39.2 The Michelson-Morley Experiment 39.3 Einstein’s Principle of Relativity 39.4 Consequences of the Special Theory of Relativity 39.5 The Lorentz Transformation Equations 39.6 The Lorentz Velocity Transformation Equations 39.7 Relativistic Linear Momentum 39.8 Relativistic Energy 39.9 Mass and Energy 39.10 The General Theory of Relativity ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q39.1 No. The principle of relativity implies that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light in a vacuum, which is 300 Mm/s. The electron would emit light in a conical shock wave of Cerenkov radiation. *Q39.2 Answer (c). The dimension parallel to the direction of motion is reduced by the factor g and the other dimensions are unchanged. *Q39.3 Answer (c). An oblate spheroid. The dimension in the direction of motion would be measured to be scrunched in. *Q39.4 Answer (e). The relativistic time dilation effect is symmetric between the observers. Q39.5 Suppose a railroad train is moving past you. One way to measure its length is this: You mark the tracks at the cowcatcher forming the front of the moving engine at 9:00:00 AM , while your assistant marks the tracks at the back of the caboose at the same time. Then you F nd the distance between the marks on the tracks with a tape measure. You and your assistant must make the marks simultaneously in your frame of reference, for otherwise the motion of the train would make its length different from the distance between marks. *Q39.6 (i) Answer (c). The Earth observer measures the clock in orbit to run slower. (ii) Answer (b). They are not synchronized. They both tick at the same rate after return, but a time difference has developed between the two clocks. Q39.7 (a) Yours does. (b) His does. (c) If the velocity of relative motion is constant, both observers have equally valid views. 405 Note : In chapters 39, 40, and 41 we use u to represent the speed of a particle with mass, reserving v for the speeds associated with reference frames, wave functions, and photons.
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406 Chapter 39 Q39.8 Get a Mr. Tompkins book by George Gamow for a wonderful F ctional exploration of this question. Driving home in a hurry, you push on the gas pedal not to increase your speed by very much, but rather to make the blocks get shorter. Big Doppler shifts in wave frequencies make red lights look green as you approach them and make car horns and car radios useless. High-speed transportation is very expensive, requiring huge fuel purchases. And it is dangerous, as a speeding car can knock down a building. Having had breakfast at home, you return hungry for lunch, but you F nd you have missed dinner. There is a F ve-day delay in transmission when you watch the Olympics in Australia on live television. It takes ninety-F ve years for sunlight to reach Earth. We cannot see the Milky Way; the F reball of the Big Bang surrounds us at the distance of Rigel or Deneb.
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course PHY 232 taught by Professor Williams,frank during the Spring '11 term at Ohio State.

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SM_chapter39 - 39 Relativity Note: In chapters 39, 40, and...

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