SM_chapter36

SM_chapter36 - 36 Image Formation CHAPTER OUTLINE 36.1 36.2...

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36 Image Formation CHAPTER OUTLINE 36.1 Images Formed by Flat Mirrors 36.2 Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors 36.3 Images Formed by Refraction 36.4 Thin Lenses 36.5 Lens Aberrations 36.6 The Camera 36.7 The Eye 36.8 The Simple Magni± er 36.9 The Compound Microscope 36.10 The Telescope ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q36.1 With a concave spherical mirror, for objects beyond the focal length the image will be real and inverted. For objects inside the focal length, the image will be virtual, upright, and magni± ed. Try a shaving or makeup mirror as an example. Q36.2 With a convex spherical mirror, all images of real objects are upright, virtual and smaller than the object. As seen in Question 36.1, you only get a change of orientation when you pass the focal point—but the focal point of a convex mirror is on the non-refl ecting side! *Q36.3 (i) When we fl atten a curved mirror we move its center of curvature out to in± nity. The focal length is still half the radius of curvature and is in± nite. Answer (d). (ii) The image is actual size and right side up. The magni± cation is 1. Answer (b). Q36.4 The mirror equation and the magni± cation equation apply to plane mirrors. A curved mirror is made fl at by increasing its radius of curvature without bound, so that its focal length goes to in± nity. From 111 0 pq f += = we have 11 pq =− ; therefore, . The virtual image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front. The magni± cation is M q p p p = = 1. The image is right side up and actual size. *Q36.5 (i) Answer (c). (ii) Answer (c). When the object is at the focal point the image can be thought of as a right side up image behind the mirror at in± nity, or as an inverted image in front of the mirror. Q36.6 In the diagram, only two of the three principal rays have been used to locate images to reduce the amount of visual clutter. The upright shaded arrows are the objects, and the correspondingly numbered inverted arrows are the images. As you can see, object 2 is closer to the focal point than object 1, and image 2 is farther to the left than image 1. 321 V F C O 1 O 2 I 2 I 1 FIG. Q36.6
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322 Chapter 36 Chapter 35 *Q36.7 (i) (a) positive (b) negative (c) negative (d) negative (e) positive (f) positive (g) positive (ii) (a) positive (b) positive (c) positive (d) positive (e) negative (f) negative (iii) (a) positive (b) negative (c) positive (d) negative (e) negative (f) positive *Q36.8 Answer (c). The angle of refraction for the light coming from F sh to person is 60°. The angle of incidence is smaller, so the F sh is deeper than it appears. *Q36.9 The ranking is e > d > g > a > b > f > c. In case e, the object is at inF nite distance. In d the object distance is very large but not inF nite. In g the object distance is several times the focal length. In a, the object distance is a little larger than the focal length. In b the object distance is very slightly larger than the focal length. In f it is equal to the focal length. In c the object distance is less than the focal length.
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SM_chapter36 - 36 Image Formation CHAPTER OUTLINE 36.1 36.2...

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