Lecture_Ch11-gasesF11 (1) - Chapter 11 Properties of Gases...

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Chapter 11 Properties of Gases
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Some Important Industrial Gases Methane (CH 4 ) Ammonia (NH 3 ) Chlorine (Cl 2 ) Oxygen (O 2 ) Ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) natural deposits; domestic fuel from N 2 +H 2 ; fertilizers, explosives electrolysis of seawater; bleaching and disinfecting liquefied air; steelmaking high-temperature decomposition of natural gas; plastics Name (Formula) Origin and Use Atmosphere-Biosphere Redox Interconnections Gases are everywhere and they play essential roles in the environment and industry.
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An Overview of the Physical States of Matter The Distinction of Gases from Liquids and Solids 1. Gas volume changes greatly with pressure. 2. Gas volume changes greatly with temperature. 3. Gases have relatively low viscosity. 4. Most gases have relatively low densities under normal conditions. 5. Gases are miscible. That is, they easily mix together. For example, air is a solution of nearly 20 different gases.
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The three states of matter: Example of Br 2
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Gases: Measurement of Pressure Pressure (P) = force/area Earth’s gravitational attraction pulls the gases towards its surface, creating a pressure of ≈ 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi) of surface. Effect of atmospheric pressure on objects at the Earth’s surface. Why don’t se get crushed by such force? •A. Can is filled with air, therefore has equal pressure on the inside and outside. B. Air inside the can is removed, and the atmospheric pressure crushes the can.
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A mercury barometer Laboratory devices for measuring gas pressure Barometer : An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure - Are used in determining height above sea level and in forecasting the weather. In a Hg barometer, a 1m tube containing Hg is inverted onto a dish containing more Hg. Some of the Hg flows into the dish because of its weigh, thereby creating a vacuum above the Hg column. The flow of Hg stops at about 760 mm above the surface of Hg in the dish due to the equal atmospheric pressure exerted on the Hg in the dish. Atmospheric pressure: sea level = 760 mmHg; top of Mt Everest = 270 mmHg. Pressure decreases with altitude.
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Two types of manometer closed-end open-end Manometer : an instrument for measuring the pressure of a fluid, consisting of a tube filled with a liquid. The level of the liquid is determined by the fluid P and the height of the liquid is indicated on a scale. A manometer can be closed ended or open- ended. The difference in column height (∆h) equals the gas pressure.
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The height of the column of mercury in the right arm open to atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg) is 85 mm and the height of the column of mercury in the left arm is 62 mm. What is the pressure of the gas in the bulb?
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course CHEM 1100 taught by Professor Mcintosh during the Fall '08 term at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Lecture_Ch11-gasesF11 (1) - Chapter 11 Properties of Gases...

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