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Lectures+10+_+11+-+Energy+Balance

Lectures+10+_+11+-+Energy+Balance - Energy Balance Growth...

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Energy Balance, Growth and Weight Management 10/5/11 & 10/10/11 S.E. Fleming Recommended Readings: Smolin & Thompson, Chapter 7. 1
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Abbreviations ATP = adenosine triphosphate BMI = body mass index BMR = basal metabolic rate DEXA or DXA = dual-energy X-ray  absorptiometry 2
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Lecture Outline Energy – general principles Energy balance Healthful weight What determines energy intake What determines energy expenditure (BMR,  Activity level, Thermal effect of food) Energy imbalance - Genetics versus lifestyle Summary 3
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First Law of Thermodynamics: Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It can only change forms Food intake – Energy Utilization = Change in stored  energy    4
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Converting Food Energy into Body Energy (ATP) 5
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Stored Energy in the Body 6
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Body Energy Stores  Short term supply  glycogen  Long term supply  fat in adipose tissue  protein in muscle Expand energy stores - fat in adipose tissue) Deplete energy stores - fat in adipose tissue used  for energy - protein in muscle used to  make new glucose Overweight Underweight 7
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Lecture Outline Energy – general principles Energy balance Healthful weight What determines energy intake What determines energy expenditure (BMR,  Activity level, Thermal effect of food) Energy imbalance - Genetics versus lifestyle Summary 8
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Energy Balance = Energy In Energy Out (the food you eat) (expenditures) Negative : you eat  less  energy than you  use --  lose weight Positive :  you eat  more  energy than you use --  gain weight 9
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Global - Prevalence of Underweight http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Features/Nutrition/energyintake.html 10
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Why might a child be underweight? 1. Can be an indicator of malnutrition and  associated clinical disease   insufficient energy intake to support growth nutritional def disease - eg Anemia (insufficient iron),  scurvey (insufficient Vit C) 1. Can be an indicator of “failure to thrive” 2. Can be an indicator of primary disease HIV infection, tuberculosis, cancer 1. Can simply be “normal” for his/her genetic  make-up, with NO risk factors what so ever! 11
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Long-term Positive Energy Balance Results in Obesity Implicated in : Hypertension Heart disease Type 2 diabetes Stroke Dyslipidemia Cancers Liver disease 12
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Lecture Outline Energy – general principles Energy balance Healthful weight What determines energy intake What determines energy expenditure (BMR,  Activity level, Thermal effect of food) Energy imbalance - Genetics versus lifestyle Summary 13
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Healthy Weight Implies Reduced Risk of Disease Body fatness Disease Risk Unhealthy Healthy Unhealthy 14
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Principle: Fat is more  buoyant than lean body  tissue.  Thus, for a given 
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