Lectures+10+_+11+-+Energy+Balance

Lectures+10+_+11+-+Energy+Balance - Energy Balance Growth...

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Unformatted text preview: Energy Balance, Growth and Weight Management 10/5/11 & 10/10/11 S.E. Fleming Recommended Readings: Smolin & Thompson, Chapter 7. 1 Abbreviations ATP = adenosine triphosphate BMI = body mass index BMR = basal metabolic rate DEXA or DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 2 Lecture Outline Energy – general principles Energy balance Healthful weight What determines energy intake What determines energy expenditure (BMR, Activity level, Thermal effect of food) Energy imbalance - Genetics versus lifestyle Summary 3 First Law of Thermodynamics: Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. It can only change forms Food intake – Energy Utilization = Change in stored energy 4 Converting Food Energy into Body Energy (ATP) 5 Stored Energy in the Body 6 Body Energy Stores Short term supply glycogen Long term supply fat in adipose tissue protein in muscle Expand energy stores- fat in adipose tissue) Deplete energy stores- fat in adipose tissue used for energy- protein in muscle used to make new glucose Overweight Underweight 7 Lecture Outline Energy – general principles Energy balance Healthful weight What determines energy intake What determines energy expenditure (BMR, Activity level, Thermal effect of food) Energy imbalance - Genetics versus lifestyle Summary 8 Energy Balance = Energy In Energy Out (the food you eat) (expenditures) Negative : you eat less energy than you use -- lose weight Positive : you eat more energy than you use -- gain weight 9 Global - Prevalence of Underweight http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Features/Nutrition/energyintake.html 10 Why might a child be underweight? 1. Can be an indicator of malnutrition and associated clinical disease insufficient energy intake to support growth nutritional def disease - eg Anemia (insufficient iron), scurvey (insufficient Vit C) 1. Can be an indicator of “failure to thrive” 2. Can be an indicator of primary disease HIV infection, tuberculosis, cancer 1. Can simply be “normal” for his/her genetic make-up, with NO risk factors what so ever! 11 Long-term Positive Energy Balance Results in Obesity Implicated in : Hypertension Heart disease Type 2 diabetes Stroke Dyslipidemia Cancers Liver disease 12 Lecture Outline Energy – general principles Energy balance Healthful weight What determines energy intake What determines energy expenditure (BMR, Activity level, Thermal effect of food) Energy imbalance - Genetics versus lifestyle Summary 13 Healthy Weight Implies Reduced Risk of Disease Body fatness Disease Risk Unhealthy Healthy Unhealthy 14 Principle: Fat is more buoyant than lean body tissue. Thus, for a given tissue....
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This note was uploaded on 01/19/2012 for the course NUTRI SCI 10 taught by Professor Amy during the Spring '08 term at Berkeley.

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Lectures+10+_+11+-+Energy+Balance - Energy Balance Growth...

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