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Oct 21 - Psychology Midterm Review

Oct 21 - Psychology Midterm Review - Friday Psychology...

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Friday, October 21, 2011 Psychology Midterm Review Chapter 1 Psychodynamic Perspective Sigmund Freud o Said an unconscious part of the mind profoundly influences behaviour and as a result developed a form of psychotherapy Behavioural Perspective Focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our behaviour John Locke o Nothing can exist within intellect that did not have its origins in the senses John B. Watson o Founded the school of behaviourism B.F. Skinner o Real causes of human behaviour are caused by the outer world Albert Bandura o Cognitive behaviourism Humanistic Perspective Emphasizes free will, personal growth, and the attempt to find meaning in one’s existence Self-actualization, reaching of one’s individual potential o Carl Rogers Cognitive Perspective Examined the nature of the mind and how mental processes influence behaviour Wilhem Wundt William James o Functionalism Hermann von Ebbinghaus o First empirical study of cognitive [phenomena Wolfgang Kohler o Gestalt Psychology: school of thought Socio-Cultural Perspective Examines how the social environment and cultural learning influence behaviour Individualism vs. collectivism 1
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Friday, October 21, 2011 o Individualism: personal goals and self identity o Collectivism: individual goals are subordinated to those of the group and personal identity is defined largely by the ties and bind Biological Perspective Examines how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behaviour Evolutionary Psychology o Seeks to explain how evolution shaped modern human behaviour Charles Darwin o Natural selection o “Survival of the fittest” Psychology Today What psychologists do o Private practice o Colleges/universities Chapter 2 Scientific Principles in Psychology Steps in the Scientific Process 1. Identify a question of interest 2. Gather information and form hypothesis a. A hypothesis is a specific prediction about some phenomenon 3. Test hypothesis by conducting research (e.g., correlational studies) 4. Analyze data, draw tentative conclusion, and report findings (evaluate and challenge research, expand upon it) 5. Build a body of knowledge a. A theory is set of formal statements Theories A good theory has several important characteristics o It incorporates existing facts and observations within a single framework o Testable Defining and Measuring Variables A variable is any characteristics or factor that can vary o Independent variable refers to the factor that is manipulated or controlled by the experimenter 2
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Friday, October 21, 2011 o Dependent variable is the factor that is measured by the experimenter and that may be influenced by the independent variable An operational definition defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it Operational definitions translate abstract concepts into something observable and measurable Descriptive Research
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