Lecture 8 Earthquakes

Lecture 8 Earthquakes - Lecture 8: Earthquakes Displacement...

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1 Lecture 8: Earthquakes Lecture Outline – Stress and strain the causes of earthquakes Faults Propagation of “E” P-waves – “Primary” S-waves – “Secondary” Surface waves Recording earthquakes Locating earthquakes Magnitudes Earthquake distribution Humans and earthquakes S a n A d r e s F u l t Displacement Strike-slip; Transform 2 Lecture 8: Earthquakes “E” released as crustal plates slip past one another 3 Lecture 8: Earthquakes Elastic rebound deformed by tectonic forces bend and store elastic energy - strain frictional resistance holds the rocks together Earthquakes A. Original Position B. Build up of Strain Earthquakes where and why? 4 “Elastic rebound” occurs when stress exceeds rock strength slippage occurs at the weakest point (focus) deformed rock “springs back” to its original shape (elastic rebound) Lecture 8: Earthquakes C. Slippage D. Strain Released What is an Earthquake ? 5 Lecture 8: Earthquakes direction of applied stress the sense of motion relative to the fault Types of faults and movement based on: 6 Lecture 8: Earthquakes Energy radiates in all directions from the source “E” moves in waves Interior : P-waves “Primary” S-waves “Secondary Exterior: Surface waves Focus earthquake waves originate Epicenter location on the surface directly above the focus
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7 Body waves: travel through Earth’s interior ¾ Primary (P) waves: Lecture 8: Earthquakes 8 Lecture 8: Earthquakes Body waves: travel through Earth’s interior Secondary (S) waves 9 Lecture 8: Earthquakes Surface; R- waves 10 Seismology The study of earthquake waves, Seismometers are instruments that record seismic waves Lecture 8: Earthquakes Records the movement of Earth in relation to a
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Lecture 8 Earthquakes - Lecture 8: Earthquakes Displacement...

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