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Lecture 9 Volcanoes and Eruptions

Lecture 9 Volcanoes and Eruptions - Lecture 9 Volcanoes and...

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Lecture 9: Volcanoes and Eruptions OUTLINE Magma/ Lava: Composition: Felsic, Mafic Eruption Styles Volcanic Landforms Where: global distribution Plate Tectonic Environment Hazards Forecasting Lecture 9: Volcanoes and Eruptions The nature of magma Three components: Liquid (L), Solids (S) Volatiles (G) L S G Igneous rocks form as molten rock cools and solidifies Lava Lecture 9: Volcanoes and Eruptions 1. Catastrophic and violent eruptions The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions Mount St. Helens before and after May 18, 1980 eruption Lecture 9: Volcanoes and Eruptions 2. Gentle relatively quiet outpouring of lava The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions Napua crater Kilauea volcano Hawaii Lecture 9: Volcanoes and Eruptions “Violence” of a volcanic eruption Function of Composition of the magma Temperature of the magma Dissolved gases in the magma ¾ These factors control the viscosity of magma and the nature of an eruption Factors effecting eruption style What is VISCOSITY??? Lecture 9: Volcanoes and Eruptions Fluid (low viscosity) basaltic (mafic) lavas generally produce quiet “effusive” eruptions Eruption style: Parent Materials Rhyolite: Highly viscous felsic lavas produce more explosive “violent” eruptions Basalt:
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Lecture 9: Volcanoes and Eruptions Factors affecting eruptive styles and volcanic landforms Lecture 9: Volcanoes and Eruptions Profiles of Volcanoes Shield Composite Cone Cinder Cone Lecture 9: Volcanoes and Eruptions Types of Volcanoes: Shield volcano Mauna Loa Hawaii Lecture 9: Volcanoes and Eruptions
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